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Human Body & Directional Terms

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Presentation on theme: "Human Body & Directional Terms"— Presentation transcript:

1 Human Body & Directional Terms

2 Body Cavities

3 Abdominal Cavity Contains the stomach, intestines, liver, spleen, gallbladder, pancreas, ureters, kidneys Ventral body cavity Ventral means toward the front of the body

4 Cranial Cavity The cavity inside the skull, or the cranium
Space within the skull containing the brain, protects the brain Cranial means “pertaining to the skull” Dorsal body cavity Dorsal means toward the back of the body

5 Pelvic Cavity Contains the urinary bladder, urethra, uterus, and vagina in the female, part of the large intestine and the rectum Ventral body cavity Space below the abdomen Protects the reproductive organs

6 Spinal Cavity Consist of the spinal column connecting to the cranial cavity Space within the spinal column (backbone) containing the spinal cord Dorsal body cavity

7 Thoracic or chest cavity
Contains the esophagus, trachea, lungs, heart and aorta Can be divided into two smaller areas The pleural cavity surrounds the lungs The mediastinum is the area between the lungs, containing the heart, aorta, trachea, esophagus, and thymus gland Ventral body cavity

8 Pleural Cavity Space around each lung

9 Directional Terms

10 Directional Terms Used to pinpoint or specifically locate an area on the body Anatomical position is the body standing, arms at each side, with palms facing forward and the feet side by side.

11 Directional Terms Anatomical plane And imaginary flat pate or field
Provide further division of the body, to identify a specific location or area

12 Frontal or Coronal Plane
A vertical plane dividing the body into anterior and posterior portions Anterior means front Posterior refers to the back

13 Mid-sagittal plane A vertical plane
Divides the body into equal right and left halves at the body’s midpoint

14 Sagittal Plane A vertical plane Passes from front to back
Divides body into unequal right and left sides

15 Transverse Plane A horizontal (cross- section) plane, parallel to the ground and through the waistline Divides the body into upper and lower halves or superior and inferior halves

16 Opposites Ventral Dorsal Anterior Refers to the front of the body
Posterior Refers to the back of the body

17 Opposites Cephalad Caudal – latin for tail Above the waistline
“head” or “upward” Superior – “above” Cephalic means toward the head Caudal – latin for tail Below the waistline Inferior, below

18 Opposites Superior and inferior
Used to describe body parts in relation to one another in general Superior – above Inferior - below

19 Opposites Lateral Medial Refers to the sides of the body
Refers to the middle of the body

20 Opposites Distal Proximal
Away from the point of origin or center of body The foot would be the distal portion of the leg Proximal Refers to ‘nearest the point of origin’ or center of body. Close proximity The upper thigh would be the proximal portion of the leg

21 Miscellaneous Ipsilateral Mediolateral Pertains to one side
The same side Mediolateral Pertaining to the middle and one side

22 Anatomical divisions of the abdomen
Used to describe the regions in which organs and structures are found Used to diagnose abdominal problems with greater accuracy

23 Abdominal Regions - 9 Hypochondriac region Epigastric region
Upper lateral regions beneath the ribs Epigastric region Region of the stomach and heart Lumbar region Two middle lateral regions Umbilical region Region of the navel or umbilicus Inguinal (iliac) region Lower lateral regions Hypogastric region Lower middle region, below the umbilicus


25 Abdominal Quadrants - 4 Left upper quadrant Left lower quadrant
LUQ Contains the left lobe of the liver, stomach, pancreas, spleen, and parts of the small and large intestines Left lower quadrant LLQ Contains parts of the small & large intestines, left ureters, left ovary, and fallopian tube Right upper quadrant RUQ Contains the right lobe of the liver, gallbladder, and parts of the small and large intestines Right lower quadrant RLQ Contains parts of the small and large intestines, appendix, right ureters, right ovary, and fallopian tube


27 Positions Erect Lateral recumbent Prone Supine a standing position
lying on left side with right thigh and knee drawn up to chest Prone lying face down Supine lying flat on your back

28 Positions Sims’ position Semi-prone side position
Lying on the left side with the right thigh and knee sharply flexed; left leg straight The lower arm (left) is behind the person Pillow is under the person’s head and shoulder Usually not comfortable for older persons

29 Positions Fowler’s position Semi-sitting
The head of the bed is raised between 45 and 60 degrees Spine is straight Head is supported with a small pillow

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