3 Body Planes:Definition = imaginary lines drawn through the body to separate the body into sectionsRefer to as any slice or cut through a 3 dimensional structureWhat diagnostic exams use this technique?
4 Sagittal PlaneDivides the body or organ vertically into right and left unequal parts– words used with this plane include:Medial = body parts located near the middle or midline of the bodyLateral = body parts located away from the midline or middle of the bodyProximal = body parts close to the point of referenceDistal = body parts away from the point of reference
5 Midsagittal Plane:Divides the body vertically into EQUAL right and left sides1. Medial = body parts located near the middle or midline of the body2. Lateral = body parts located away from the midline or middle of the body
6 Frontal or Coronal Plane: Divides the body into front and back section.1. Anterior = body parts on the front of the body2. Posterior = body parts on the back of the body
7 Transverse Plane:Horizontal plane dividing the body into a top and bottom half1. Superior = body parts above other parts2. Inferior = body parts below other parts
8 Body Directions Superior – upper or above Inferior- lower or below Anterior or ventral- in front ofPosterior- after or behindmedial- toward the midline- middleLateral – toward the side – away from midlineProximal-toward the truck – near point of attachment
9 Body Directions Distal-away from origin or point of attachment Dorsal- near the upper surface- toward the neckVentral- towrd the bottom- toward the bellyCranial-refers to the headCaudal – means tailInternal- inside the body
10 Body Cavities: Spaces within the body which contain vital organs Protect organs from shocks and bumpsPermit expansion and contraction without disrupting other organs
11 Posterior or Dorsal Cavity: One long continuous cavity that is located on the back of the body, divided into two sectionsSurrounds the brain and spinalcord1. Cranial Cavity = contains the brain2. Spinal Cavity = contains the spinal cord
12 Anterior or Ventral Cavity: Larger and separated into two distinct cavities --the chest and abdomen-by a dome-shaped muscle called the diaphragm, which is important for breathing1. Thoracic Cavity = located in the chest, contains the heart, lungs, and the large blood vessels2. Abdominopelvic
13 2. Abdominal Cavity = divided into upper and lower parts Upper part contains the stomach, small intestines, most of the large intestines, liver, gallbladder, pancreas and spleen3. Pelvic Cavity = lower abdominal cavity containing urinary bladder, the reproductive organs, and last part of the large intestines
14 Abdominal Regions: Quadrants 1. Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ)2. Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ)3. Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ)4. Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ)
16 Abdominal Regions: Epigastric- above the stomach Umbilical belly button or umbilicusHypogastric or pelvicbelow the stomachHypochondriacbelow the ribsLumbarNear the large bones of the spinal cordIliac or InguinalNear the groin
18 Sooooooo…….What if….You have a patient that has gangrene in the lower portion of their leg and you need to amputate….. You would make a ________________ cut through the leg.The abdominal muscles and muscles of the back are separated by the _______________ plane.
19 OK, sooooo……. Which cavity is the heart found in? Which cavity contains the spinal cord?Which cavity contains the ovaries?Which cavity contains the lungs?Which cavity consists of the abdominopelvic and thoracic cavities?Which cavity contains the cranial and spinal/vertrebral cavities?
25 Superior vs Inferior The forehead is ________ to the nose. The lips are _________ to the chin.The heart is _________ to the liver.The umbilicus is ______ to the breastboneThe knee is ____ to the hipThe stomach is ______ to the lungs
26 Anterior vs Posterior The breatbone is _______ to the spine Your front teeth are ______ to your back teeth.The esophagus is _______ to the tracheaThe spine is _______ to the heart
27 Medial vs Lateral The nose is _______ to the ears. The lungs are ______ to the heart.
28 Proximal vs Distal The elbow is ______ to the wrist The femur is ______ to the tibiaThe knee is _____ to the thighThe fingers are_______ to the elbow
29 Superficial Vs Deep The skin is _________ to the muscles The epidermis is__________ to the dermisThe organs are ____ in relation to the skinSinuses are ________ in relation to the nose