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Body Planes, Directions, and Cavities

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1 Body Planes, Directions, and Cavities

2 Introduction to care for patients, you must be able to identify areas of the body for treatments, injections, or diagnoses directional terms locate a portion of the body or describe a position of the body eg. supine or prone for examination purposes, patients are either lying face up (supine) or face down (prone)

3 Body Planes Imaginary lines drawn through body at various parts to separate body into sections Directional terms are created by these planes Three main planes: Transverse Sagittal (Midsagittal) Frontal

4 Transverse Plane Horizontal plane that divides the body into top and bottom parts Body parts above other parts are called superior Body parts below other parts are called inferior ex: knee is superior to ankle, but inferior to hip

5 Sagittal Plane divides the body into right and left sides
Midsagittal plane divides the body into equal halves Body parts close to the midline, or plane, are called medial Body parts away from the midline are called lateral

6 Frontal or Coronal Plane
Divides the body into front and back sections Body parts in front of plane, or on the front of the body are called anterior Body parts in back of plane, or on the back of the body are called posterior

7 Other Directional Terms
Proximal: body parts close to the main trunk of the body (generally called the point of reference) Distal: body parts distant from the point of reference Superficial: toward the body surface Deep: away from the body surface

8 Body Cavities Spaces within body that contain vital organs
Two main body cavities: Dorsal One long, continuous cavity located on back of body Divided into two sections: cranial, which contains the brain, and the spinal cavity, which contains the spinal cord

9 Body Cavities Ventral on the front side of the body
Separated into two distinct parts by diaphragm Thoracic cavity is located in chest and contains heart, lungs and major blood vessels Abdominal cavity is divided into upper and lower parts Upper abdominal cavity contains organs of digestive and urinary system Pelvic cavity contains reproductive organs

10 Abdominal Cavity Abdominal cavity is so large it is divided into smaller parts One method is into quadrants (Right Upper Quadrant, Left Upper Quadrant, Right Lower Quadrant, Left Lower Quadrant) Another method is into regions

11 Abdominal Regions Center region Either side of center region
Epigastric (above stomach) Umbilical (near the umbilicus or navel) Hypogastric (below navel) Either side of center region Hypochondriac (below ribs) Lumbar (near the waist) Iliac, or inguinal (near the hipbone)

12 Apply your Knowledge Loretta complains of abdominal pain. The emergency room physician suspects that she may have appendicitis. In which of the following quadrants is the appendix located? A. RUQ B. RLQ C. LUQ D. LLQ Answer: B. RLQ

13 Apply your Knowledge This patient is being examined. Which of the following positions is she in? A. Prone B. Supine Answer: B. Supine

14 Apply your Knowledge Complete the following statements by adding the correct directional terms. The hands are ________________ to the elbow. distal The nose is _______________ to the ear. medial The stomach is _____________ to the heart and ________________ to the intestines. inferior, superior answers: distal, medial, inferior, superior

15 Apply your Knowledge What are the opposites for the following directional terms? deep posterior inferior supine lateral superficial anterior superior prone medial

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