Presentation on theme: "English Law & Civil War Democracy Develops in England."— Presentation transcript:
English Law & Civil War Democracy Develops in England
Democracy Develops Democracy had been developing gradually throughout history Greece: Athens (Assembly and Courts) Rome: Republics Finally, it began to take root in England
King Henry II King Henry II – made a significant change to move England toward democracy Trial by Jury Not a jury as we know it today. Instead it was 12 that uncovered facts about a case Led to Common Law (customs and principles established over time through court rulings)
King John King John – Unpopular king who fought a costly war with France and lost. Now had to raise taxes to pay for the war People were angry and nobles rebelled and forced him to grant them political rights (Magna Carta or “Great Charter”) Magna Carta contract between kings and nobles Limited power of the king over his subjects MAJOR THEME: Kings now had to govern according to law (rule of law) 63 clauses Example: King can ’ t tax without consent
King Edward I King Edward needed money for wars/pay debt which the people disapproved Nobles now wanted a say in how the kingdom was run Brought together lords, clergy, knights, and burgesses (leading citizens) in the very first Parliament
Parliament What did Parliament do? Voted on Taxes Helped Edward I make reforms Consolidated Laws By the mid 1300s, Parliament was divided into two houses 1) House of Commons (knights and burgesses/lower house) 2) House of Lords (nobles and bishops)
Parliament Guided Reading In pairs, read the narrative (p.306-312) on the creation of Parliament. As you read, underline important points of the story you/partner feel are integral to the story. After reading each section (3 total), complete the guided question with your partner. When done with the reading/questions, we will review as a class and submit.
Parliament Section 1 (up to p. 308) How did Simon de Montfort change Parliament for the better? Who comes to power after Simon?
Parliament Section 2 (up to p. 309) How did King Edward feel about Simon’s form of Parliament?
Parliament Section 3 (up to p. 312) How did Parliament increase its power over the King? How did Parliament begin to make laws for England? How did the House of Commons increase its power in Parliament?
Parliament Name 3 positive consequences as a result of the creation of Parliament. We will discuss then move on to our next topic.
Blaat Activity Questions What is a Civil War? What is a Revolution? How are both actions similar? How are they different? Explain how conflicts within a society can lead to revolution or unrest. Provided specific examples from the Blaat activity and the content discussed in class to support your conclusions.
King James I James I (king in 1603) believed in the divine right Problems exist with Parliament because of this and his need for money (to pay off a debt) Religious issues also prevailed A new group called the Puritans want to purify the Church of England They ask James I for reforms but he says no – many move to North America
King Charles I Charles I (son of King James) also wanted money for war and opposed Puritans Parliament agrees as long as Charles agrees to the Petition of Right No taxing without Parliaments consent No imprisoning citizens illegally No housing troops in citizens ’ homes Charles signs but ignores it later Civil War breaks out!
English Civil War Parliament Wins, King Charles I is executed New gov ’ t is formed (a commonwealth) under Oliver Cromwell Complete obedience required Closed theaters/entertainment venues Citizens are unhappy Impact of Hobbes’ view on monarchs They want their king back
Monarchy Restored Oliver Cromwell died in 1658 His son Richards became the ruler of England – he was unable to maintain the gov ’ t People were tired of military rule and Puritan laws 1660, newly elected Parliament restored the monarchy under Charles II (Restoration)
King James II (1685) Catholic! Why is this a problem for the people? Allowed people of all Christian faiths to worship freely
James II Absolute Power! Why is this a problem for the people? Claimed he had the right to suspend law
James II 1688 – second wife has a son Why is this a problem for the people? Catholic son would inherit the throne Not Mary, his protestant daughter
Glorious Revolution Whigs & Tories united & forced James to flee the country Mary & her husband, William of Orange, peacefully took over the throne
William & Mary Agreed to rule according to Parliament’s laws Common Law Bill of Rights