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Parliament Limits the English Monarchy

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1 Parliament Limits the English Monarchy

2 Parliament’s Financial Power
Parliament is England’s legislature; they controlled “held the purse strings” Parliament’s financial power was an obstacle to English rulers becoming absolute monarchs In 1603, James I becomes king; doesn’t want to share any power with Parliament Also fought with Puritans who wanted the church to be less like Catholic churches (more pure)

3 Charles I Fights Parliament
1625 Charles I becomes king; also an absolute monarch Charles needs money for war with Spain and France When Parliament refuses to give him money, he dissolves it (cancels it) he needs Parliament to give him money Parliament won’t give it to him until he signs the “Petition of Right” in which he agrees not to raise taxes without Parliament’s consent Charles signs it, then ignores it

4 Charles I Unpopular Petition of Right important
Idea that the law was higher than the king Contradicted theories of an absolute monarchy 1629 – Charles dissolves Parliament again and refuses to call it back Gets money by fees and fines on the English people Makes him very unpopular

5 English Civil War Puritans and Protestants in Scotland unhappy with Charles trying to make them all follow the Anglican church Scots rebel and Charles needs money to fight them Needs to call Parliament, which sees this as an opportunity to oppose him Parliament passes laws limiting royal power Charles tries to arrest Parliament’s leaders, but they escape Riots force Charles to flee London and raise an army in the north

6 English Civil War Charles fights back and Civil War begins (1642 – 1649) Supporters of Charles and the monarchy – Cavaliers Supporters of Parliament – Roundheads Leader of the Roundheads – Oliver Cromwell, Puritan Roundheads defeat Cavaliers

7 Roundheads and Cavaliers

8 Charles I Executed Charles I is tried for treason against Parliament and executed First time in Europe that a ruling monarch had been tried publicly and executed by his own people Parliament shows that in England, no ruler can claim absolute power and ignore the rule of law

9 Execution of Charles I

10 Oliver Cromwell

11 Cromwell’s Rule After Charles is executed, Cromwell abolishes the monarchy Declares England a republic, called the Commonwealth, 1653 – Cromwell sends home Parliament The first constitution of any modern European state is written, but Cromwell eventually tears it up and becomes a military dictator

12 Puritan Morality In England, Cromwell and Puritans want to reform society by promoting Puritan morality No theater, sports or dancing Religious toleration for all Christians except Catholics

13 Restoration and Revolution
After Cromwell dies, people tired of strict Puritanism and strict military rule Parliament asks Charles I’s son to rule England Charles II comes to London amid cheering and happiness; becomes monarch in 1660 Called the Restoration because the monarchy was restored

14 Charles II Reigns Under Charles II, Parliament passes an important guarantee of freedom, habeas corpus Prisoners have right to know the charges against them and could not be held indefinitely without a trial A monarch could not put someone in jail simply for opposing the ruler Heir was his brother James, a Catholic

15 James II and the Glorious Revolution
Next, James II becomes king; openly Catholic Appoints Catholics to high office Parliament protests, so James dissolves it Worried Protestants ask his daughter Mary and her husband William, who are Protestants, to become ruler William leads his army into London in 1688 James II flees – becomes known as the Glorious Revolution, the bloodless overthrow of the King James II

16 Coronation of William and Mary

17 Limits on Monarch’s Power
William and Mary promise to accept Parliament as a partner in governing England becomes a constitutional monarchy, where laws limit the ruler’s power Parliament writes the English Bill of Rights in 1689, listing things a monarch could not do: Suspend any of Parliament’s laws No levying taxes without Parliament’s approval No interfering with freedom of speech in Parliament No penalty for citizens who petitions the king about grievances (complaints)

18 A Cabinet System Develops
After 1688, no British monarch could rule without the consent of Parliament And Parliament could not rule without the consent of the monarch If they disagreed, government came to a standstill Settled by development of a cabinet, a group of officials who acted in ruler’s name

19 So… England differs from most of Europe at the time by NOT having an absolute monarchy Instead, they have a constitutional monarchy in which the monarch’s power is limited by a constitution!

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