2 ObjectiveTo understand how England transition from feudalism to a constitutional monarchy
3 I. Growth of Royal Power Feudalism During the middle ages: Feudalism- a loosely organized system of gov. among greater and lesser lordsWilliam the Conqueror- took over England in 1066, made all lord swear fealty directly to himCensus and efficient tax collecting system increase royal wealth and authority.Feudalism
4 I. Growth of Royal Power Henry II-expanded legal system Henry II common law- a legal system based on custom and previous court decisionsStandardized crimes and punishments.Jury trialsHenry II
5 II. Evolving Traditions of Government 1215 King John abused his power and nobles revolted and made him sign the Magna CartaMagna Carta: document that makes rule of law a key principle of government, nobles had certain rights•Magna Carta
6 II. Evolving Traditions of Government The “Great Council” evolves into Parliament- England’s LegislatureParliament wins the right to approve new taxes, which limits the power of the king.Houses of Parliament, London, England
7 III. The Royal Challenge James IReligious intoleranceRuled with absolute authorityIgnored parliamentCharles IImprisoned foes w/o trialForced to summon parliament to raise taxesParliament forces him to sign the petition of rights, which he later ignoresCharles I
8 IV. Triumph of Parliament Parliament revolts against Charles I.Oliver Cromwell’s (Parliament’s) army defeats the king’s troops in the English Civil War.
9 IV. Triumph of Parliament Parliament abolishes (gets rid of) the monarchy, and Parliament declares England a republic, known as the “Commonwealth”Cromwell become a dictatorOliver Cromwell
10 V. Glorious RevolutionAfter Cromwell (and some other stuff) the Parliament invited William and Mary of Orange to come take the throneThey had to sign the English Bill of Rights before taking the throne.RESULT: Parliament was now more powerful than the KingWilliam and Mary
11 1.5 Questions1. What new practices did strong monarchs introduce in England?2.How did the English Parliament limit the power of the monarch before the civil war?3.Who was Oliver Cromwell? How does he compare to Charles I?4. What three important documents in this section? Describe each.