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Lesson 32: Era of Good Feelings and Sectionalism

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1 Lesson 32: Era of Good Feelings and Sectionalism
Unit 5-A New Country Lesson 32: Era of Good Feelings and Sectionalism

2 Review With the invention and use of steamboats, river travel became a lot easier. Canals also made travel between the eastern and western parts of the country easier and more affordable. Both of these new ideas of the 1800s lowered the cost and time of shipping goods, as well as allowing settlers to travel to new territories of the United States.

3 Era of Good Feelings Following the War of 1812, there was no major political divisions among the people of the United States, which led to a sense of national unity. The Federalists barely existed as a national party due to doubts of their loyalty during the War of 1812. James Monroe, a Republican candidate, easily won the election of 1816 to become president.

4 James Monroe

5 Era of Good Feelings Although the Federalists had almost disappeared, many of their programs still gained support. A Boston newspaper called this time period the ‘Era of Good Feelings’ because there were few political differences among the people. Monroe was a symbol of these good feelings.

6 Era of Good Feelings President Monroe toured the nation, being the first president since Washington to have done this. He paid for his own expenses and tried to travel without security, showing his confidence in the good feelings of the nation. Monroe was even welcomed to Boston, a city that had strong Federalist ties.

7 Election of 1820 After four years of being president and traveling to all parts of the nation, Monroe easily won reelection. Monroe won all but one of the electoral votes.

8 Sectionalism The Era of Good Feelings did not last long, as regional differences strengthened. Most Americans felt a strong loyalty to the region where they lived, believing they were Westerners or Southerners or Northerners. This sectionalism increased as new national policies were created.

9 Sectionalism Conflicts
Southerners believed in the necessity and value of slavery, and that slavery was more an issue of their rights. Northerners opposed slavery. Different regions disagreed on the need for tariffs, a national bank, and internal improvements.

10 Internal Improvements
Internal Improvements were federal, state, and privately funded projects, such as canals and roads, to develop the nation’s transportation system. In the early 1800s, three Congressmen spoke up for their regions: John C. Calhoun, Daniel Webster, and Henry Clay.

11 John C. Calhoun He was a planter from South Carolina, and was one of the War Hawks that called for war with England in 1812. Calhoun supported internal improvements, developing industry, and a national bank, believing they would benefit the South.

12 John C. Calhoun

13 John C. Calhoun In the 1820s Calhoun’s views began to change, and he became one of the main supporters for state sovereignty. Calhoun argued that tariffs raised the prices that they had to pay on manufactured goods they could not make themselves. Believed tariffs also protected inefficient manufacturers in the United States.

14 Daniel Webster He was a Congressman from New Hampshire, who actually represented Massachusetts. He was originally a supporter of free trade and the shipping interests of New England. In time, Webster began to favor tariffs, which would protect American industries, and strengthen the nation while helping the North.

15 Daniel Webster

16 Henry Clay He was a former War Hawk, and represented Kentucky and the interests of the Western states. Tried to resolve sectional disputes through compromise.

17 Henry Clay

18 Missouri Compromise The issues of admitting new states into the Union and slavery caused tension between the South and North. The South wanted Missouri to be admitted as a slave state, while Northerners wanted Missouri to be free of slavery. The issue was debated and created strong, bitter regional divisions.

19 Missouri Compromise While debates on Missouri continued, Maine, still a part of Massachusetts, had also applied for independent statehood. Henry Clay proposed a compromise to keep the balance between the North and South with the Missouri Compromise.

20 Missouri Compromise The compromise stated that Missouri would be admitted as a slave state and Maine as a free state. The deal also banned slavery in the rest of the Louisiana Territory north of the 36°30’N parallel.

21 Missouri Compromise

22 McCulloch v. Maryland The issue of states’ rights was brought to the Supreme Court. The state of Maryland had imposed a tax on the Second Bank of America in Baltimore, a federal institution. The bank refused to pay the state tax.

23 McCulloch v. Maryland The Court ruled that Maryland did not have the right to tax the bank because it was a federal institution. The argument for the ruling was that the Constitution and federal government receive their authority from the people, not the state governments.

24 Gibbons v. Ogden Ruled that states could not create a law that interfered with Congressional power over interstate commerce. The ruling strengthened the national government and added to the debate over sectional issues. States’ rights supporters believed that the ruling increased federal power at the expense of state power.

25 Relations With England
Americans realized, following the War of 1812, that it was time to make peace with England. The Rush-Bagot Treaty set limits on the number of naval ships each country could have on the Great Lakes. The treaty also provided for the removal of weapons along an important part of the border between the U.S. and Canada.

26 Relations With England
A second agreement with England, called the Convention of 1818, set the boundary of the Louisiana Territory between the United States and Canada at the 49th parallel. There was now a secure border without armed forces. Secretary of State John Q. Adams also worked to gain the right to settle in the Oregon Country.

27 Convention of 1818

28 Relations With Spain Spain still owned East Florida and claimed West Florida. The United States claimed that West Florida was part of the Louisiana Purchase, adding it to parts of Louisiana and Mississippi. Spain took no action against this.

29 Relations With Spain In April 1818, General Andrew Jackson had been ordered to stop Seminole raids on American territory in Florida. Jackson also captured two Spanish forts, going beyond his instructions. Luis de Onis, the Spanish minister to the U.S., protested the actions and demanded that Jackson and his officers be punished.

30 Adams-Onis Treaty John Q. Adams did not believe that Jackson should be punished. Adams believed that the Spanish did not want war and would be willing to settle the Florida dispute. The treaty gave all of Florida to the United States, and Spanish Texas to Spain. The treaty also set up a border between the U.S. and Spanish lands to the west.

31 Adams-Onis Treaty

32 Monroe Doctrine Spain had been dealing with many issues with it’s empire in Mexico, Central America, and South America. In 1822, Spain asked for help from France, Austria, Russia, and Prussia. President Monroe decided to take action in regards to the possibility of increased European involvement in North America.

33 Monroe Doctrine Monroe issued a statement on December 2, 1823, which would later be known as the Monroe Doctrine. He stated that the U.S. would not interfere with any existing European colonies in the Americas, but would oppose any new ones. The Monroe Doctrine became an important part of American foreign policy for future generations.

34 Monroe Doctrine

35 Conclusion The United States entered a time of national unity following the War of This Era of Good Feelings did not last long due to the differing beliefs of the different regions throughout the nation. As the country was dealing with the idea of sectionalism, they were also trying to make peace with England and Spain.

36 Assignments Answer the four review questions for this lesson.
Complete the Monroe Doctrine Worksheet You will have a Unit 5 test after you complete Lesson 32

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