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Growth and Expansion Unity and Sectionalism

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1 Growth and Expansion Unity and Sectionalism
Chapter 9, Section 2 Pages

2 Did You Know? Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton were not the only leaders in early America to fight a duel. In 1809 Kentucky state legislator and Republican Henry Clay and his Federalist part colleague, Humphrey Marshall, disagreed over an embargo of British-made goods. Clay challenged Marshall to a duel. The two men fired three rounds at each other, and both suffered minor wounds. Neither man changed his mind about the embargo.

3 The Era of Good Feelings
James Monroe won the 1816 presidential election easily. He had been involved in national politics since the American Revolution. Political differences seemed to disappear during this Era of Good Feelings, and Monroe’s presidency also symbolized the era. He traveled around the nation as far south as Savannah and as far west as Detroit. In 1820 Monroe was reelected, receiving all but one electoral vote.

4 Sectionalism Grows Regional difference soon surfaced, and the Era of Good Feelings disappeared. This promoted sectionalism, or loyalty to a region. Differences arose over slavery and national policies. Slavery was opposed in the North and protected in the South. National policies --- such as tariffs, a national bank, and internal improvements, or federal, state, and privately funded projects to develop the nation’s transportation system --- were not accepted in all regions of the Union.

5 John Calhoun John Calhoun, a planter from South Carolina, was the spokesman from the South. Early on he favored support for internal improvements, developing industries, and a national bank. In the 1820’s, be backed state sovereignty, or the belief that states should have power over the federal government, and was against high tariffs. Calhoun said high tariffs raised the prices of manufactured goods planters could not produce themselves and tariffs protected unproductive corporations.

6 Daniel Webster Daniel Webster was first elected to Congress in 1812 to represent New Hampshire. In later years, he represented Massachusetts in the House and Senate. He began his career as a supporter of free trade and the shipping interests of New England. In time he began to favor the Tariff of 1816, which protected American industries from foreign competition, and other policies that would strength the nation and help the North. He became known as a great orator when, as a senator, he spoke in defense of the nation.

7 Henry Clay Henry Clay of Kentucky, a leader who represented Western states, became Speaker of the House in 1811. He served as a member of the group who negotiated the Treaty of Ghent to end the War of 1812. Clay became known as the national leader who tried to resolve sectional disputes and conflict through compromise.

8 The Missouri Compromise
The Missouri Compromise reached in March 1820 tried to preserve the balance between the North and South. The South wanted Missouri, part of the Louisiana Purchase, admitted as a slave state, and the North wanted Missouri to be a free state. The Compromise stated that: Missouri would be admitted as a slave state. Maine, still part of Massachusetts, was to be admitted as a free state. Slavery was to be banned in the remaining part of the Louisiana Territory north of the 36° 30’ North parallel.

9 Slave States

10 The American System Henry Clay proposed a program called the American System in 1824. He felt that all regions of the nation would benefit from his program: a protective tariff, a program of internal improvements, especially building roads and canals to stimulate trade, and a national bank to promote one national currency and to lend money to build industry.

11 The American System Not everyone agreed.
Thomas Jefferson thought that the American System favored the wealthy manufacturing classes of New England. The South agreed with Jefferson and did not see how they would benefit from the tariff and internal improvements. Congress adopted some internal improvements and created the controversial Second Bank of the United States.

12 Supreme Court Cases The Supreme Court heard several cases that involved sectional and states’ rights issues. McCulloch v. Maryland in 1819 involved the issue of whether of not the state of Maryland had the right to impose a tax on the Second Bank of the United States. Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that Maryland did not have the right to tax the Bank because it was a federal institution. In the case Gibbons v. Ogden, the Supreme Court said that states could not enact legislation that would interfere with congressional power over interstate commerce.

13 Foreign Affairs President Monroe signed two agreements to resolve long-standing disputes with Britain. The first was the Rush-Bagot Treaty, signed in It set limits on the number of naval vessels each could have on the Great Lakes. It also provided for the disarmament, or removal of weapons, along the boarder between British Canada and the United States. The second was the Convention of 1818, in which the official boundary of the Louisiana Territory was set at the 49th parallel and became a demilitarized zone, one without arms. America was also given the rights to settle in the Oregon Territory.


15 Andrew Jackson and Spanish Florida
When General Andrew Jackson invaded Spanish East Florida in April 1818 and took control of two Spanish forts, he went beyond his orders to stop Seminole raids on American territory. The Spanish minister to the United States, Luis de Onis, protested and Secretary of War John Calhoun said that Jackson should be court-martialed. Secretary of State John Quincy Adams disagreed.

16 The Adams-Onis Treaty Spain signed the Adams-Onis Treaty in 1819, in which Spain gave East Florida to the United States and gave up claims to West Florida. In return the United States gave up claims to Spanish Texas and agreed to pay $5 million that American citizens claimed Spain owed them for damages. The border between the United States and Spanish possessions in the Northwest was extended from the Gulf of Mexico to the 42nd parallel and then west to the Pacific. The United States gained a large piece of territory on the Pacific northwest as a result of the treaty.

17 The Monroe Doctrine The Monroe Doctrine, issued on December 2, 1823, served to protect North America from increased European involvement. It stated that the United States would not interfere with any existing European colonies in the Americas, but it would oppose any new ones. When the doctrine was issued, the United States did not have the military power to enforce it. However, it became and has remained an important part of American foreign policy.

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