Presentation on theme: "Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010 1 Defining Psychology Psychology The scientific study of behavior and mental processes Key terms: Science: psychology."— Presentation transcript:
Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010 1 Defining Psychology Psychology The scientific study of behavior and mental processes Key terms: Science: psychology uses the scientific method to observe, describe, and predict behavior. Behavior: is everything that a person does that can be directly observed. Mental processes: are the internal thoughts, feelings, and motives that cannot be directly observed.
Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010 2 Defining Psychology Psychology is considered a science, but it is different from the other sciences with which students are familiar. Psychology, as a science, focuses on the many facets that make everyone who they are.
Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010 3 Psychological Frame of Mind Psychologists approach life questions as scientists. Attitudes of scientific approach: Critical thinking: Scientists are critical thinkers: They question what others consider factual. They accept nothing at face value. Curiosity: Scientists practice curiosity. A scientist wants to know why things in the world are the way they are and how they became that way. Science is concerned with asking questions. Skepticism: Scientists practice skepticism. They ask questions about things that other people take for granted. Objectivity: Scientists apply objectivity in conducting research using empirical methods (through observation and logical reasoning) to gather data.
Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010 4 Science of All Human Behavior The scope of psychology as a whole is much more than that of the clinical psychologists who treat and study psychological disorders. Sigmund Freud studied the dark, unpleasant, and unconscious aspects of psychology. His view influenced the way psychology is generally perceived. Psychology seeks to gain knowledge in all dimensions, both positive and negative, of human behavior. Research on forgiveness (letting go of anger and resentment toward others who have harmed us) has shown that good can come out of negative events or situations. (For example, the Amish were able to forgive the person who killed their daughters in a school shooting.) Psychology addresses all sides of being human and participates in healthy debate.
Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010 5 Careers in Psychology
Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010 6 Historical Perspective For thousands of years, people have been trying to answer the basic questions of human behavior, such as (a) how do our senses perceive the world? (b) how do we learn? (c) what is memory? (d) and why does one person grow and flourish, whereas another struggles in life? Early philosophers, such as Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, debated the nature of thought and behavior, including the possible link between the mind and the body. Psychology has its roots not only in philosophy but also in biology and physiology. Wilhelm Wundt, a German philosopher- physician, founded the academic discipline of psychology. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SW6nm69Z_IE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q3wjHWyf11s
Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010 7 Structuralism Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) German philosopher-physician First Psychology Laboratory (1879) Identify elements, or structures, of mental processes Introspection
Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010 8 Functionalism William James (1842-1910) American psychologist and philosopher Identify purposes, or functions, of the mind Why is human thought adaptive? Natural flow of thought, or stream of consciousness
Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010 9 Contemporary Approaches A. Biological (p. 8) 1. Brain and nervous system 2. Neuroscience 3. Thoughts and emotions B. Behavioral (p. 9) 1. Observable behavior 2. Interactions between behavior and environment 3. John Watson and B. F. Skinner C. Psychodynamic Approach (p. 9) 1. Unconscious thoughts, inner conflicts, early childhood experiences 2. Freud 3. Beliefs D. The Humanistic Approach (p. 10) 1. Positive qualities 2. Capacity for personal growth 3. Freedom to choose E. Cognitive Approach (p. 10) 1. Mental processes such as remembering, making decisions, planning, goal setting 2. Creativity F. Evolutionary Approach (p. 10) 1. David Buss 2. Differences across cultures 3. Differences among people of the same culture G. Sociocultural Approach (p. 11) 1. Behavior 2. Differences across cultures 3. Differences among people of the same culture