Presentation on theme: "Introduction and History of Psychology Chapter 1."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction and History of Psychology Chapter 1
History of Psychology What Is Psychology – and What Is It Not? Psychology is a broad field, with many specialties, but fundamentally, psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uuvGh_n3I_M http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uuvGh_n3I_M
History of Psychology What Is Psychology – and What Is It Not? Psychology : The scientific study of behavior and mental processes Psychology is not: Mere speculation about human nature A body of folk wisdom about people that “everybody knows” to be true
What Is Psychology – and What Is It Not? Psychology disputes unfounded claims from pseudo psychology. Horoscopes, “false” rediscovered memories. Pseudo psychology – Erroneous assertions of practices set forth as being scientific psychology.
Historical Roots What are Psychology’s historical roots?
Historical Approaches Structuralism: focused on revealing the most basic “structures” of the mind. Mid 1800’s: Charles Darwin He suggested a biological kinship btw humans and animals. Chemistry: Whilem Wundt Scientist had noticed patterns in properties of the chemical elements that led them to develop the periodic table Wundt wondered could a similar process be applied to simplify our understanding of the mid?
Wilhelm Wundt 1879 Wundt established the first institute for psychological research at the University of Leipzig. Wundt and his students began to conduct studies on what they supposed to be the “elements” of consciousness. Sensation and perception, memory, emotion, etc. Introspection: process of reporting on one’s own conscious mental experience.
Historical Approaches Functionalism: Focus on Function William James: Critic of Wundt Argued that Psychology should include the function of Consciousness, not just the structure. “Stream of Consciousness” as a mental process that had no static structure, but was continually flowing, changing, and interacting with the environment. Adapting
Historical Approaches Gestalt Psychology: Focus on the WHOLE instead of the parts. Opposite of structuralism. Gestalt Psychologists were interested in how we construct “perceptual wholes”. Such as our perception of a face. Relied on introspection.
Historical Approaches Behaviorism: Eliminate the mind and focus on BEHAVIOR John B. Watson*: Argued that a true and objective science of psychology should deal solely with observable events: Stimuli from the environment and the organism’s response. Behaviorism should be the science of BEHAVIOR not the mind. Cared nothing about what people were thinking, instead they wanted to know how people would act. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FMnhyGozLyE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FMnhyGozLyE
Historical Approaches Psychoanalysis: Focus on the UNCONSCIOUS mind. Sigmund Freud * Asserted that mental disorders arise from conflicts in the unconscious mind. Psychoanalytic: method of treating mental disorders. *Still a force today.
Modern Approaches Nine main perspectives characterize modern psychology: Biological Developmental Cognitive Psychodynamic Humanistic Behavioral Socio-cultural Evolutionary Trait
Biological Perspective View of Human Nature: We are complex systems that respond to hereditary and environmental influences. What Determines Behavior: Neural structures, biochemistry, and inborn responses to external cues. Our physical makeup and the operation of our brain influences our personality and behavior. What does this mean? Use your own words.
Developmental Perspective View of Human Nature: We undergo predictable patterns of change throughout our lives. Ex: Childhood, adolescence, adulthood. What Determines Behavior: Interaction between heredity and environment. Ex: Nature v. Nurture Describe this perspective in your own words.
Cognitive Perspective View of Human Nature: People are information-processing systems. mental processes like sensation, perception, learning, memory, and language, all influence behavior. What Determines Behavior: Mental interpretation of our experience. Describe this perspective in your own words.
Psychodynamic Perspective View of Human Nature: We are driven by dark forces of the unconscious. FREUD! (unconscious, sexual, desires influence behavior) What Determines Behavior: Unconscious needs, conflicts, repressed memories, and childhood experiences. Emphasizes the treatment of mental disorders over scientific research. Describe this approach in your OWN words.
Humanistic Perspective View of Human Nature: Emphasizes human growth and potential. Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers Perfect Flower What Determines Behavior: The influence of self-concept, perceptions, and interpersonal relationships, and on need for personal growth. Describe this perspective in your OWN words.
Behavioral Perspective View of Human Nature: Behavior is primarily shaped by learning. We should look for the causes of behavior in our environment rather than in the biology of our mind. John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner What Determines Behavior: Stimulus cues and our history of rewards and punishments. Study the person from the outside only, focusing only on what they can directly observe. Describe this perspective in your OWN words.
Sociocultural Perspective View of Human Nature: People are social animals, so human behavior must be interpreted in social context. What Determines Behavior: Cultures, social norms and expectations, social learning. How are social influences different across cultures? Give examples! Describe in your OWN words!
Evolutionary/Sociobiological Perspective View of Human Nature: Behavior is developed and adapted over time. Charles Darwin What Determines Behavior: Natural selection, survival of the fittest. What does this mean? Describe in your OWN words!
Trait Perspective View of Human Nature: Individual differences result from differences in our underlying patterns of stable characteristics. Examples: Laid back, moody, what else? What Determines Behavior: Each person’s unique combination of traits. Describe in YOUR own words.
Think, Pair, and Share Which approach do you like or agree with most, why? Which approach do you dislike the most? Why?