4 The Goals of Psychology Psychology – Scientific study of behavior and mental processes through scientific research.Description – The first goal for any scientist or psychologist is to describe or gather information about the behavior being studies and to present what is known.
5 ExplanationHypothesis – An assumption about behavior that is tested through scientific research.Theory – A set of assumptions used to explain phenomena and offered for scientific study.
6 PredictionsThe third goal of psychologists is to predict, as a result of accumulated knowledge, what organisms will do and, in the case of humans, what they will think or feel in various situations.
7 InfluenceBasic Science – The pursuit of knowledge about natural phenomena for is own sake.Applied Science – Discovering ways to use scientific findings to accomplish practical goals.
8 The Scientific Basis of Psychology Scientific Method – A general approach to gathering information and answering questions so that errors and biases are minimized.
9 A Brief History of Psychology Phrenology – The practice of examining bumps on a persons skull to determine that person’s intellect and character traits.
10 The Origins of Psychology In the 5th and 6th centuries B.C. the Greek discovered that peoples lives are dominated not so much by Gods but by their own minds.
11 Historical Approaches Structuralism – A psychologist who studied the basic elements that make up conscious mental experiences.Introspection – A method of self-observation in which participants report their thoughts and feelings.
12 FunctionalismWilliam James ( )- Known as the father of psychology.Functionalist – A psychologist who studies the function of consciousness.Example – How people and animals adapt to their environment.
13 Inheritable TraitsSir Francis Galton wanted to understand how heredity influences a persons abilities, character and behavior.
14 Gestalt PsychologyGestalt psychologists studied how sensations are assembled into perceptual experiences.
15 Psychoanalytic Psychology Sigmund Freud ( ) – believed unconscious motivations and conflicts are responsible for most human behavior.Psychoanalyst- A psychologist who studies how unconscious motives and conflicts determine human behavior.
16 Behavioral Psychology Ivan Pavlov ( ) he stressed investigating observable behaviorBehaviorist – A psychologist who analyzes how organisms learn or modify their behavior based on their response to events in the environment.B.F. Skinner ( ) introduced the concept of reinforcement.
17 Humanistic Psychology Humanists – A psychologist who believes that each person has freedom in directing his or her future and achieving personal growth.
18 Cognitive PsychologyCognitivist – A psychologist who studies how we process, store, retrieve and use information and how cognitive processes influence our behavior.
19 Biological Psychology Psychobiologist – A psychologist who studies how physical and chemical changes in our bodies influence our behavior.
20 Sociocultural Psychology Sociocultural Psychologist – considers how our knowledge and ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving are dependent on the culture to which we belong.
22 What is a PsychologistPsychologist – A scientist who studies the mind and behavior of humans and animals.Clinical Psychologist – A psychologist who diagnoses and treats people with emotional disturbances.Counseling Psychologist – A psychologist who usually helps people deal with problems of living.Psychiatry- A branch of medicine that deals with mental, emotional, or behavioral disorders.
23 Developmental Psychologist – A psychologist who studies the emotional, cognitive, biological, personal, and social changes that occur as an individual matures.Educational Psychologist – A psychologist who is concerned with helping students learn.Community Psychologist – A psychologist who may work in a mental health or social welfare agency.
24 Industrial/Organizational Psychologists – A psychologist who uses psychological concepts to make the workplace a more satisfying environment for employees and managers.Experimental Psychologist – A psychologist who studies sensation, perception, learning, motivation, and emotion in carefully controlled laboratory conditions.