2 Chapter Preview Defining Psychology Historical Foundations of PsychologyContemporary Approaches to PsychologySpecializations and Careers in PsychologyApplication: Health and Wellness
3 Psychology: Defined The scientific study of behavior and mental processesKey components of this definition:ScienceBehaviorMental ProcessesIM: Defining Psychology ActivityNote: Instructors should note the goals of psychology – to describe, predict, and explain behavior. Those goals can easily be tied to the research methods discussed in Chapter 2 for added emphasis.
4 Psychology and Common Sense Is psychology simply common sense?Sometimes yes, but sometimes no…Hindsight BiasUnexpected FindingsIM: Activity Handout 1.1: Common Sense or FactActivity/Demonstration: Asking students how they would respond in certain situations (e.g., bystander intervention) and then telling them that their response(s) are inconsistent with research findings helps make this point.
5 Positive PsychologyPsychology has traditionally focused on the negative aspects of human experience, but the discipline is concerned with much more than disordered behavior!Positive Psychology MovementExperiences people valueTraits associated with optimal functioningPositive group and civic valuesIM: Positive Psychology ActivityIM: Forgiveness Activity
6 Historical Approaches Western PhilosophyBiology and PhysiologyWilhelm Wundt ( )First Psychology Laboratory (1879) established at the University of Leipzig
7 Structuralism Wundt: Identify structures of the mind Research described dimensions of feeling:Pleasure / DispleasureTension / RelaxationExcitement / DepressionMethodology: IntrospectionIM: Structuralism Activity
8 Functionalism William James and Pragmatism Identify the functions of the mindFocused on interactions with environmentAdaptive significance: “Why?”Flow of thought: Stream of consciousnessIM: Functionalism Activity
9 Psychology and Evolution Charles Darwin (1859)Natural SelectionThere exists a constant struggle for resourcesNature will favor those traits that promote reproduction and survivalEnvironmental changes alter evolution’s courseIM: Activity Handout 1.2: To Be Extinct or Not
10 Contemporary Approaches Seven Current Psychological Perspectives Biological Behavioral Psychodynamic Humanistic Cognitive Evolutionary SocioculturalNote: It is important to stress early and often that these approaches are complementary, not contradictory… that they really represent different levels of analysis.
11 The Biological Approach Focuses on the brain and nervous systemCentral to understanding behavior, thought, and emotionNeuroscienceStructure, function, development, genetics, biochemistry of the nervous systemChapter 3: Biological Foundations of Behavior
12 The Behavioral Approach Focuses on the environmental determinants of observable behaviorNotable Behaviorists:John Watson, B.F. SkinnerEarly conflicts with cognitive psychologistsChapter 7: Learning
13 The Psychodynamic Approach Emphasizes unconscious thought, conflict between internal drives and society, and early family experiencesAll influence behavior, thought, and emotionNotable Psychodynamic TheoristsSigmund Freud, Erik Erikson, Alfred AdlerChapter 11: Personality
14 The Humanistic Approach Focuses on positive human qualities, capacity for self-actualization, free willDeveloped in response to the behaviorist and psychodynamic approachesNotable Humanistic TheoristsCarl Rogers, Abraham MaslowChapter 11: Personality
15 The Cognitive Approach Emphasizes the importance of mental processes to problem solving, learning and memoryMental processes control behavior through memories, perceptions, and thinkingChapter 9: Thinking, Language, and Intelligence
16 The Evolutionary Approach Emphasizes the relevance of evolutionary theory to all behavior and mental processesCurrent function reflects changes that occurred in response to ancestral environmentsNotable Evolutionary PsychologistsDavid Buss, Leda Cosmides, John ToobyChapter 3: Biological Foundations of Behavior
17 The Sociocultural Approach Examines how social and cultural environments influence behavior and mental processesIn contrast to the evolutionary approachStudies differences between ethnic and cultural groups within a countryChapter 12: Social Psychology
18 Contemporary Approaches Seven Current Psychological PerspectivesBiologicalBehavioralPsychodynamicHumanisticCognitiveEvolutionarySocioculturalNote: This slide is repeated to encourage instructors to summarize the complementary approaches to understanding behavior and mental processesIM: How Would They See It? Activity
19 Critical Controversy: Altruism Altruism DefinedVoluntary behavior intended to help othersNot motivated by expectation of personal gainAltruism: The Evolutionary ApproachKin selection and inclusive fitnessAltruism: The Sociocultural ApproachSocial relationships unfold over timeActivity/Demonstration: Ask students first to provide real-world examples of altruistic behaviorIM: Truly Altruistic ActivityIM: Activity Handout 1.3: Are You Altruistic?
20 Areas of Specialization Specializations are not mutually exclusiveHighlighted by “Intersections” in the textAmerican Psychological AssociationAbbreviated: APACurrently 56 divisions / specializationsIM: Activity Handout 1.4: Jobs in Psychology
21 Areas of Specialization Physiological PsychologyBehavioral NeuroscienceDevelopmental PsychologySensation and PerceptionActivity/Demonstration: It might be helpful to invite a few colleagues or professional in to your class to discuss their area of specialization and/or careerNote: Instructors might either delete and/or elaborate on these areas of specialization
22 Areas of Specialization Cognitive PsychologyLearningMotivation and EmotionPersonality PsychologyActivity/Demonstration: It might be helpful to invite a few colleagues or professional in to your class to discuss their area of specialization and/or careerNote: Instructors might either delete and/or elaborate on these areas of specialization
23 Areas of Specialization Social PsychologyIndustrial and Organizational PsychologyClinical and Counseling PsychologyHealth PsychologyActivity/Demonstration: It might be helpful to invite a few colleagues or professional in to your class to discuss their area of specialization and/or careerNote: Instructors might either delete and/or elaborate on these areas of specialization
24 Areas of Specialization Community PsychologySchool and Educational PsychologyEnvironmental PsychologyPsychology of WomenActivity/Demonstration: It might be helpful to invite a few colleagues or professional in to your class to discuss their area of specialization and/or careerNote: Instructors might either delete and/or elaborate on these areas of specialization
25 Areas of Specialization Forensic PsychologySport PsychologyCross-Cultural PsychologyActivity/Demonstration: It might be helpful to invite a few colleagues or professional in to your class to discuss their area of specialization and/or careerNote: Instructors might either delete and/or elaborate on these areas of specialization
26 Intersection: Culture and Emotion Complete the “Happiness” scale in the textSum your ratings and divide the total by 5Higher scores = higher perceived happinessDespite numerous cultural differences, most people report being happyBut culture can impact perceived happiness
27 Intersection: Culture and Emotion Individualistic CulturesIndividuals viewed as unique and distinct from their social groupValue independenceCollectivistic CulturesEmphasize social group and the individual’s role within that groupValue interdependenceNote: Instructors should stress that, although personal happiness is positively correlated with individualism, there is a price (e.g., higher suicide and divorce rates)
28 Careers in Psychology What do psychologists do? And where? Business Social and Human ServicesResearchEducationResearch LaboratoriesClinical and Private Practice SettingsActivity/Demonstration: Instructors might ask students to describe the various career opportunities available to those who hold undergraduate or advanced degrees in psychologyIM: Activity Handout 1.4: Jobs in Psychology
31 Psychology: Health and Wellness Psychology is concerned with Mind-Body ConnectionsThe mind impacts the bodyExamples?The body impacts the mindIM: Is It Good For You? ActivityActivity/Demonstration: Have students generate the examples called for in this slide, or have them sort your examples into the two categories
32 Chapter SummaryExplain what psychology is and describe the positive psychology movement.Discuss the roots and early scientific foundations of psychology.Summarize the main themes of seven approaches to psychology.Evaluate areas of specialization and careers in psychology.Describe the connections between the mind and the body.Note: Instructors may use the learning objectives presented on this slide or the following two slides to summarize the chapter material
33 Chapter Summary Defining Psychology The scientific study of behavior and mental processesHistorical Foundations of PsychologyOrigins in philosophy and physiologyStructuralism – Wilhelm WundtFunctionalism – William JamesEvolutionary Theory – Charles Darwin
34 Chapter Summary Contemporary Approaches to Psychology Seven current approaches – complementarySpecializations and Careers in PsychologyBusiness, social and human services, researchEducation, research, clinics and private practiceApplication: Health and WellnessThe mind-body connection is a “two-way street”