2 To study governments, geographers look at the following: Types – Who rules and who participates.Systems – How the power is distributed.
3 Types of Government are based on one key question: Who governs and what is the citizen participation?There are three types of governments:Autocracy, Oligarchy, and Democracy
4 AutocracyGovernment in which the power to govern is held by one person.Generally the power to rule is inherited or by military force.There are threetypes of Autocracy.
5 #1 DictatorshipThe leader has not been elected and uses force to control all aspects of social and economic life.Examples: Adolf Hitler in Germany and Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union
6 #2 Absolute Monarchy A monarchy has a king, queen, emperor or empress. The power is usually inherited or passed down from family members.The monarch has absolute power meaning they can make all decisions without consulting anyone.
7 #3 Constitutional Monarchy Kings, queens or emperors share power with elected legislatures.Generally the Kings are nothing more than figureheads.The government is a democratic one that limits the monarchs power.Example: Great Britain
8 OligarchyA government in which a few people such as a dominant clan or clique have power.The group gets their power from either military, wealth or social status.Elections may be held but offeronly one candidate.Examples: Greek city states
9 Democracy In a democracy, the government is “Rule by the people” There are two forms of democracyDirect Democracy – People vote on all the issues.Representative Democracy – People elect representatives and give them the power to vote on issues.Example: United States
10 In a democracy…. Individual freedom and equality is valued. Free elections are heldDecisions are based on majority rule.All candidates can express their views freely.Citizens vote by secret ballot.
11 Democratic Governments There are two major forms of democratic governments:ParliamentaryPresidential
12 Parliamentary Democracy Voters elect members to the Parliament (legislature)Parliament has two Houses:House of Commons: The Political Party with the most votes in the House of Commons chooses the Prime Minister, the government’s leader with no set length of term.House of Lords: Little power with most members being nobles having inherited their titles
13 Presidential Democracy Voters elect legislatorsVoters elect (indirectly) the president.Therefore, in the presidential system voters have a more direct say about those who serve in two branches of the government :LegislativeExecutive
14 Parliamentary System Presidential System ExecutiveExecutiveLegislativeSelectElectElectLegislativeElectCitizensCitizens
15 Putting it all together…. The United Kingdom is an autocratic constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy and a unitary system.The United States is a presidential democracy with a federal system.What do those statements mean?
16 What do you remember? What are the three types of governments? What are the three systems of government?