Presentation on theme: "Principles of Government"— Presentation transcript:
1 Principles of Government Systems, Forms, and Types
2 Standard:Essential QuestionSSCG 19 : Compare and contrast governments that are unitary, confederal, federal, autocratic, oligarchic, democratic, presidential and parliamentary.What are the similarities and differences between the many forms of government including; unitary, confederal, federal, autocratic, oligarchic, democratic, parliamentary and presidential?
3 ObjectivesLearn the four essential features of a “state” (not a “State”).Learn the four theories about the origination of statesUnderstand the difference between unitary, confederal and federal systems of governmentLearn about the three major forms of governmentIdentify key characteristics of democratic government
4 “State” or “state?”“State” (capitalized) refers to a political subdivision of the United States, such as the State of Montana“state” (lower case) refers to a nation-state or country, such as France or the United States
5 Theories on Origin of states Divine right (God given right to rule)Social contract (Society’s need for order)Force theory (organize to resist enemies)Evolutionary theory (extended family rule became government)
6 Systems and Types of Government In order to study government, we first need to look at the following: Systems: How is the Power distributed Types: Who rules and who participates
7 Systems of government are based on one question… …How is the power distributed?There are three ways governments distribute power:UnitaryConfederationFederal
8 Unitary One central government controls everything Power is NOT shared between states, counties, or provinces.Examples: The United Kingdom, France, the Netherlands, and Spain
10 ConfederalA voluntary association of independent states that agrees to follow a central government.States can choose to follow or not follow the lead of the central governmentExamples: CSA, Russian Federation
11 Federal Power is shared by a central government States or Provinces are given considerable self-rule, usually through their own legislatures.Examples, the United States and Germany
15 Types of government are based on one question… …Who governs and what is the citizenship participation?There are three types of government:AutocracyOligarchyDemocracy
16 AutocracyGovernment in which the power to govern is held by one personGenerally the power to rule is inherited or by military forceThere are three types of autocracyExample: Iraq, and Great BritainDictatorship- absolute rule generally by forceAbsolute Monarchy-absolute rule inherited through family tiesConstitutional Monarchy-share power with elected officials, seen for as figurehead with limited to no power
17 OligarchyA government in which a few people such as a dominate clan or clique hold all the powerThe group gets their power through either military, wealth, or social statusElections may be held but offer only one candidateExamples: Greek-City states, Russian Federation.
18 Democracy Two forms of democracy Ruled by the people Individual freedom and equality is valuedFree elections are heldDecisions are based on majority ruleCitizens vote by secret ballotExample: the United StatesTwo forms of democracyDirect Democracy- People vote on all issuesRepresentative Democracy (Republic)- citizens elect representatives and give them the power to vote on the issues
20 Two Major Types of Democratic Governments ParliamentaryPresidentialVoters elect members to ParliamentHouse of Commons-the Political Party with the most votes in the House of Commons chooses the Prime Minister, the government’s leader with no set length of termHouse of Lords: little power with most members being nobles having inherited their titlesVoters elect legislaturesVoter elect (indirectly) the presidentTherefore, in the presidential system voters have a more direct say about those who serve in two branches of the governmentLegislativeExecutive