2 To study governments, geographers look at the following: Types – Who rules and who participates?Systems – How the POWER is distributed?
3 Types of Government are based on one key question: Who governs and what is the citizen participation?There are three types of governments:Autocracy, Oligarchy, and Democracy
4 AutocracyGovernment in which the power to govern is held by one person.Generally the power to rule is inherited or by military force.Types of Autocracy.
5 #1 DictatorshipThe leader has not been elected and uses force to control all aspects of social and economic life.Examples: Adolf Hitler in Germany and Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union
6 #2 Absolute Monarchy A monarchy has a king, queen, emperor or empress. Brunei, Oman, Saudi Arabia and Vatican City.A monarchy has a king, queen, emperor or empress.The power is usually inherited or passed down from family members.The monarch has absolute power meaning they can make all decisionswithout consulting anyone.
7 OligarchyA government in which a few people such as a dominant clan or clique have power.The group gets their power from either military, wealth or social status.Elections may be held but offeronly one candidate.Example:Greek city statesCaudillos - those who owned large estates throughout the land.Sparta
8 Democracy In a democracy, the government is “Ruled by the people” There are two forms of democracyDirect Democracy – People vote on all the issues.Representative Democracy – People elect representatives and give them the power to vote on issues.Example: United States
9 In a democracy…. Individual freedom and equality is valued. Free elections are heldDecisions are based on majority rule.All candidates can express their views freely.Citizens vote by secret ballot.
10 Democratic Governments There are two major kinds of democratic governments:ParliamentaryPresidential
11 Parliamentary Democracy Voters elect members to the Parliament (legislature)Parliament has two Houses:House of Commons: The Political Party with the most votes in the House of Commons chooses the Prime Minister, the government’s leader with no set length of term.House of Lords or Senate: Little power with most members being nobles having inherited their titles.
12 Presidential Democracy Voters elect legislatorsVoters elect (indirectly) the president.Therefore, in the presidential system voters have a more direct say about those who serve in two branches of the government :LegislativeExecutive
13 Parliamentary System Presidential System ExecutiveExecutiveLegislativeSelectElectElectLegislativeElectCitizensCitizens
14 Systems of Government are based on one question: How is the power distributed? There are three ways governments distribute power:UnitaryConfederationFederal
15 Unitary One central government controls everything. Power is not shared between states, counties or provinces.Examples : United Kingdom, France, the Netherlands, and Spain
16 Ways Government Distributes Power UnitaryWays Government Distributes PowerRegional AuthorityRegional AuthorityCentral AuthorityRegional AuthorityRegional Authority
17 ConfederationA voluntary association of independent states that agrees to follow a powerful central government.Nations can choose to follow or not follow the lead of the weak central government.Examples: Confederate States of America( ), Russian Federation.
18 Ways Government Distributes Power ConfederationWays Government Distributes PowerRegional AuthorityRegional AuthorityCentral AuthorityRegional AuthorityRegional Authority
19 Federal Power is shared by a powerful central government. States or provinces are given considerable self rule, usually through their own legislatures.Examples: United States, Germany
20 Ways Government Distributes Power Federation / FederalWays Government Distributes PowerRegional AuthorityRegional AuthorityCentral AuthorityRegional AuthorityRegional Authority
21 How is the power distributed? All key powers are held by the central governmentState/regional authorities hold most of the powerUnitaryConfederationFederalShared powerStrong central governmentWeaker central government
22 Putting it all together…. The United Kingdom is an autocratic constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy and a unitary system.The United States is a presidential democracy with a federal system.What do those statements mean?
23 What do you remember? What are the three types of governments? What are the three systems of government?Autocracy, Oligarchy, and DemocracyUnitary, Confederation, and Federal