2 SS7CG4b Explain how governments determine citizen participation: autocratic (autocracy), oligarchic (oligarchy), and democratic (democracy).
3 To study governments, geographers look at the following: Types – Who rules and who participates.Systems – How the power is distributed.
4 TYPES of Government are based on one key question: Who governs & how does the citizen participate? There are three types of governments:Autocracy, Oligarchy, and Democracy
5 AutocracyGovernment in which the power to govern is held by one person.Generally the power to rule is inherited or held by military force.There are three types of an Autocracy.
6 #1 DictatorshipThe leader has not been elected and uses force to control all aspects of social and economic life; citizens (people) have few (if any) rights.Examples: Adolf Hitler in Germany and JosephStalin in the Soviet Union
7 #2 Absolute Monarchy A monarchy has a king, queen, emperor or empress. The power is usually inherited or passed down from family members.The monarch has absolute power meaning they can make all decisions without consulting anyone.Example: Saudi Arabia
8 #3 Constitutional Monarchy Kings, queens or emperors share power with elected legislatures.Generally the Kings are nothing more than figureheads.The government is a democratic one that limits the monarchs power.Example: Great Britain
10 OligarchyA government in which a few people such as a dominant clan or clique have power.The group gets their power from either military, wealth or social status.Elections may be held but offeronly one candidate.Examples: Greek city-states;theocracy= a government ruledby religious leaders(s), ex. Iran
12 Democracy In a democracy, the government is “Ruled by the people” There are two forms of democraciesDirect Democracy – Citizens (people) vote on all the issues.Representative Democracy – Citizens elect representatives and give them the power to vote on issues.Example: United States
15 In a democracy…. Individual freedom and equality is valued Free elections are heldDecisions are based on majority ruleAll candidates can express their views freelyCitizens vote by secret ballot
16 Democratic Governments Government where citizens elect representatives; citizens are involved through their representatives (voting)RepublicPresidentialDemocracyParliamentaryDemocracyThere are two major forms of representative democracies:ParliamentaryPresidential
17 Parliamentary Democracy Voters elect members to the Parliament (legislature)Parliament (legislature) has two Houses:House of Commons: The Political Party with the most votes in the House of Commons chooses the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister is the government’s leader who has no set length of term.House of Lords: Little power with most members being nobles who have inherited their titles
18 Parliamentary Democracy Executive power is held by members of the legislature; (executive + legislative = one branch of government)Prime minister (leader/chief of state), is elected by the legislature, NOT by the peopleHead of state (ex. king or queen) has a ceremonial role, but the chief of state usually has the power 2 separate peopleExample: Israel
19 Presidential Democracy Voters elect legislatorsVoters elect (indirectly) the president.Therefore, in the presidential system voters have a more direct say about those who serve in two branches of the government :LegislativeExecutive
20 Presidential Democracy The president and legislature are separate branches of government and powers are divided between themPresident is head of state and chief of state = ceremonial duties (role) + powerPresident is limited to two 4-year termsExample: United States
21 Parliamentary System Presidential System ExecutiveExecutiveLegislativeSelectElectElectLegislativeElectCitizensCitizens
22 SS7CG4a Describe the ways government systems distribute power: unitary, confederation, and federal
23 Systems of Government are based on one question: How is the power distributed? There are three ways governments distribute power:UnitaryConfederationFederal
24 Unitary One central authority/government controls everything. Power is not shared between states, counties, or provinces.Examples: United Kingdom, France, the Netherlands, and Spain
25 Unitary Government Unitary System RegionalAuthorityRegionalAuthorityCentral AuthorityRegionalAuthorityRegionalAuthority
26 ConfederationA voluntary association of independent states that agrees to follow a powerful central government.Nations can choose to follow or not follow the lead of the weak central government.Do not last very long; very weak and unstableExamples: Confederate States of America( ); European Union.
27 Confederation Regional Regional Regional Regional Central Authority
28 Federal Power is shared by a powerful central government. States or provinces are given considerable self rule, usually through their own legislatures.Examples: United States, Germany
29 Federation Federal Government Federal System RegionalAuthorityRegionalAuthorityCentral AuthorityRegionalAuthorityRegionalAuthority
30 Putting it all together…. The United Kingdom is an autocratic constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy and a unitary system.The United States is a presidential democracy with a federal system.What do those statements mean?
31 What do you remember? What are the three types of governments? What are the three systems of government?