Presentation on theme: "Types of Government. To study governments, geographers look at the following: Types – Who rules and who participates. Systems – How the power is distributed."— Presentation transcript:
To study governments, geographers look at the following: Types – Who rules and who participates. Systems – How the power is distributed.
Types of Government are based on one key question: Who governs and what is the citizen participation ? There are three types of governments: Autocracy, Oligarchy, and Democracy
Types of government define who rules and who participates There are three types of governments: 1. Autocracy: Rule by one 2. Oligarchy: Rule by few 3. Democracy: Rule by all Forms: Direct and Representative Methods: Parliamentary and Presidential
Governments distribute power through systems. A. Unitary All decisions and power held at a central level B. Federal Decisions and power split between national and state or provincial governments
Autocracy Government in which the power to govern is held by one person. Generally the power to rule is inherited or taken by military force.
There are three types of autocratic government. 1.Dictatorships 2.Absolute Monarchies 3.Constitutional Monarchies
Dictatorship A dictatorship consists of rule by one person or a group of people often taken by force. Very few dictators admit they are dictators and almost always claim to be leaders of democracies
Dictatorship Description A leader has total power Examples include: Cuba (Castro) & North Korea (Kim Jong Il).
Monarchy A monarchy consists of rule by a king/queen or “emperor”. 1. Absolute 2. Constitutional
Absolute Monarchy A monarchy has a king, queen, emperor or empress. A monarchy has a king, queen, emperor or empress. The power is usually inherited or passed down from family members. The power is usually inherited or passed down from family members. The monarch has absolute power meaning they can make all decisions and laws without consulting anyone. The monarch has absolute power meaning they can make all decisions and laws without consulting anyone. Example Louis XIV in France during the 1700s
Constitutional Monarchy has power that is limited by a set of rules called a constitution) King/Queen has power that is limited by a set of rules called a constitution) and shares power with elected officials Generally the Kings are nothing more than figureheads. The government is a democratic one that limits the monarchs power. Example Present day England
Oligarchy When a family or small group of people control all of the power to govern and make laws The group gets their power from either military, wealth or social status. Elections may be held but offer only one candidate. Examples China Only one party (communist) allowed
Theocracy type of oligarchy where religious leaders govern type of oligarchy where religious leaders govern Example Example Iran Iran
Democracy “Democracy” literally means “rule by the people.” In a democracy, the people govern – by voting.
In a democracy…. Individual freedom and equality is valued. Free elections are held Decisions are based on majority rule. All candidates can express their views freely. Citizens vote by secret ballot.
Kinds of democracies 1. Direct Democracy 2. Representative Democracy
Direct Democracy Description The power of government is controlled directly by the people Everyone votes on every issue Example: In some American states, town meetings are held where every citizen votes by publicly proclaiming their vote.
Direct democracy is impossible in a political system containing more than a few people. In a representative democracy, delegates are selected by the people through a defined process to make and enforce laws.
Representative Democracy The people elect representatives who then make decisions for them Example: Canada, United States
Forms of Representative Democracy 1. Parliamentary 2. Presidential
Parliamentary Democracy Voters elect members to a Parliament (legislature) Example: Canada, Britain,
Parliamentary Democracy Parliaments are bicameral in that they have two houses where decisions are made 1. House of Commons The political party with the most elected members in the House of Commons forms the government. The leader of that party becomes the Prime Minister. 2. Senate or House of Lords Elected government chooses people to govern in the senate.
Presidential Democracy Voters elect legislators and also elect, directly or indirectly, the President. Therefore, in the presidential system voters have a more direct say about those who serve in two branches of the government : Legislative Executive
The United Kingdom… is an autocratic constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy and a unitary system. The United States… is a presidential democracy with a federal system. Putting it all together….