Overgeneralization Based on too little evidence or evidence that ignores exceptions. Ex. Adults just want to deny teenagers their rights. Otherwise, the curfew law would not have been approved.
False causality Assumes one event caused another because one happened before the other. Ex. Councilman Jay Jones proposed the curfew after his store was robbed. The robbery is the reason he proposed it.
False Analogy Draws an invalid conclusion from a comparison that is weak or unreasonable. Ex. The city council understands modern teenagers about as well as most people understand the theory of relativity.
Red herring Something that takes a listener’s attention away from the real issue or point. Ex. The curfew law is the city council’s attempt to usurp parents’ authority.
Attack ad hominem Attacking the person associated with the issue instead of the issue itself. Ex. Councilman Lee, who supports the curfew, is well known for his dislike of children in general and teenagers in particular.
Bandwagon Effect Encourages listeners to act or think a certain way because everyone else is. Ex. The student council, the cheerleaders and the football team are against the curfew. You should be also.
Here’s what you do… In your introduction- Grab your readers attention Give background information Include a clear thesis statement
Here’s what you do… In your body… Support your position with 3 reasons and 2 pieces of evidence for each reason Use rhetorical devices to shape your support Organize reasons and evidence on the basis of relative strength Offer and refute counter arguments
Here’s what you do… In your conclusion- Restate your thesis Consider providing a summary of your reasons Call readers to action by telling them what they can do to impact the situation
Resource Holt Elements of Literature, Fourth Course. Page 342-349
Now that you know what to do… …I expect you to dazzle me. Good luck.