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The Art of Persuasion * * * * * How to write persuasive essays * * * * *

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Presentation on theme: "The Art of Persuasion * * * * * How to write persuasive essays * * * * *"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Art of Persuasion * * * * * How to write persuasive essays * * * * *

2 Prewriting  Choose an issue  State Your Position  Consider your Purpose and Audience  Support Your Opinion

3 Rhetorical Devices Rhetorical devices are the vehicle that will allow one to communicate one’s perspective on an issue and demonstrate why one’s opinion is the correct one

4 Types of Appeals  Logical Appeals (Logos)  Emotional Appeals (Pathos)  Ethical Appeals (Ethos)

5 Types of Appeals  Logical Appeals: Speak to readers’ minds. They rely on reason and good common sense.

6 Types of Appeals  Emotional Appeals: Speak to readers’ emotions, such as sympathy, fear, and hope

7 Types of Appeals  Ethical Appeals: Speaks to the readers’ ethics or moral values; They call upon widely held beliefs such as honesty and fairness.

8 Other Rhetorical Devices * * * Repetition Parallelism Rhetorical questions Argument by analogy * * *

9 Repetition The repeated use of a word, phrase, or clause more than once for emphasis

10 Parallelism The repetition of the same grammatical form to express equal, or parallel, ideas. A noun is paired with a noun, a phrase with a phrase, a clause with a clause, and so on.

11 Rhetorical questions Questions that are not meant to be answered but are asked for effect.

12 Argument by analogy Draws a parallel between basically dissimilar events or situations.

13 Types of Evidence  Facts: Provable information; can be statistical data  Examples: Specific instances of a situation

14 Types of Evidence  Expert Opinions: Statements by individuals who are considered experts on the issue in question  Analogies: Comparisons that show similarities between two unrelated ideas

15 Types of Evidence  Case studies: Studies based on scientific methodology  Anecdotes: brief, personal stories that make a point

16 Danger!

17 Logical Fallacies Avoid these at all cost…

18 Overgeneralization Based on too little evidence or evidence that ignores exceptions. Ex. Adults just want to deny teenagers their rights. Otherwise, the curfew law would not have been approved.

19 False causality Assumes one event caused another because one happened before the other. Ex. Councilman Jay Jones proposed the curfew after his store was robbed. The robbery is the reason he proposed it.

20 False Analogy Draws an invalid conclusion from a comparison that is weak or unreasonable. Ex. The city council understands modern teenagers about as well as most people understand the theory of relativity.

21 Red herring Something that takes a listener’s attention away from the real issue or point. Ex. The curfew law is the city council’s attempt to usurp parents’ authority.

22 Attack ad hominem Attacking the person associated with the issue instead of the issue itself. Ex. Councilman Lee, who supports the curfew, is well known for his dislike of children in general and teenagers in particular.

23 Bandwagon Effect Encourages listeners to act or think a certain way because everyone else is. Ex. The student council, the cheerleaders and the football team are against the curfew. You should be also.

24 Here’s what you do… In your introduction- Grab your readers attention Give background information Include a clear thesis statement

25 Here’s what you do… In your body… Support your position with 3 reasons and 2 pieces of evidence for each reason Use rhetorical devices to shape your support Organize reasons and evidence on the basis of relative strength Offer and refute counter arguments

26 Here’s what you do… In your conclusion- Restate your thesis Consider providing a summary of your reasons Call readers to action by telling them what they can do to impact the situation

27 Resource  Holt Elements of Literature, Fourth Course. Page 342-349

28 Now that you know what to do… …I expect you to dazzle me. Good luck.

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