Foods Supply Energy Fuel for your body When your body uses nutrients in food, a series of chemical reactions take place, therefore energy is released. Metabolism Chemical process by which your body breaks down food to release energy
Foods Supply Nutrients What is a nutrient? Substances your body needs to: regulate body function promote growth repair body tissues obtain energy ***Body requires more than 40 nutrients for these tasks
Calories What is a calorie? The amount of energy released when food is broken down is measured in units Heat Energy Scientific term - The energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water through 1 °C (now usually defined as 4.1868 joules). What is the recommended daily caloric intake for a average human?
Average Caloric intake? Caloric Intake for Women Caloric Intake for Men Several factors play into how much calories you should take in daily. How much exercise – low, moderate, intense How fit are you – obese, in shape Quality of the foods you eat – fast food, fruits, vegetables How much sleep you get, how long you stay awake
Six Types of Nutrients Carbohydrates Fats Proteins Vitamins Minerals Water
Carbohydrates Purpose: Supply energy to your body There are two different types of carbohydrates – simple : known as sugars. Ex. Fruits, vegetables, milk, table sugar, refined foods complex: starches are the main types. Starch are sugars linked together that form a long chain. Ex. Oats, grains, wheat, potatoes, whole wheat
Complex Carbohydrates Fiber – complex carbohydrate found in plants. Fiber cannot be broken down and passed through your blood stream. Passed through without being digested but is a necessity for proper functioning of your digestive system. A High Fiber diet will – Prevent constipation Reduce risk of colon cancer Prevent heart disease
Daily Carbohydrate Intake 45 to 65 Percent of your daily diet Better to eat foods rich in complex carbohydrates High in Sugar – candy, soft drinks – Low Nutritional Value
Fats Nutrient with highest energy content Purpose supply your body with energy, form your cells, maintain body temperature and protect your nerves. Unsaturated – good fat neurons Saturated fats- bad fat cholesterol
Daily Fat Intake 25 to 35 percent of your daily caloric intake Primarily unsaturated fats To reduce intake of saturated fats, substitute low fat foods for meats and dairy products that are high in saturated fats.
Protein Purpose serve as a source of energy Growth and repair of body tissue’s High Protein diet – ex. Milk, eggs, meats, nuts, beans, peas, lentils 22 total amino acids 13 are made in the body 9 MUST come from food!!! Complete proteins- animal sources have all 9 amino acids Incomplete proteins- veggies, nuts, seeds lack one or two incomplete proteins
Amino Acids Makes up protein in our body and food. Digest protein, body breaks down the protein into amino acids which are absorbed into bloodstream and reassembled to make the proteins your body needs. Essential Amino Acids – 22 total amino acids 9 come from food The rest your body manufactures
Complete and Incomplete Proteins Complete – Proteins from an animal source Meats, fish, dairy Contains all nine essential amino acids Incomplete – Proteins that come from a plant source Beans, broccoli, peas, etc. Lack one or more essential amino acids
Daily Intake Protein 10 to 35 percent of your daily diet should be proteins Diet with a variety of meat and vegatables will supply the right amount of protein and amino acids you will need.
Vitamins Nutrients that are made by living things, are required only in small amounts Purpose – assist in chemical reactions, using other nutrients Two Classes – Fat soluble – dissolve in fat. Water soluble – dissolve in water
Fat Soluble Fat Soluble Vitamins A, D, E, K are found in vegetable oils, eggs, vegetables, milk, fruit, sunlight Can be stored in the body
Water Soluble Water soluble vitamins Vitamin C, B Vitamins are found in fruits, vegatables Can not be stored in the body Important to get a daily dose of these vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, Folate, C Play a role in metabolism, nervous system function, healthy red blood cells, formation of proteins, fights infections
Minerals Nutrients that occur naturally in rock and soils 24 essential minerals have been shown for good health Need seven minerals – calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, chlorine and sulfur
Water 65 Percent of your body is water Purpose hydrates your body Carries waste out of your body Digest food Cells/tissues/organs need water to function Play a role in production of energy
Water and Homeostasis Homeostasis – process of maintaining a steady state inside your body Water contains dissolved substances called electrolytes Daily Intake – 10 glasses of 8 oz. of water Factors – age, gender, physical activity Caffeine – increases the amount of water your body excretes
Water and Exercise Drink water before and after you exercise Sports drinks – try to avoid sports drinks for low to moderate work outs. Heavier to more intense workouts, sports drinks can be beneficial but in moderation. When in doubt drink water