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7 Chapter Nutrients: From Food to You

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1 7 Chapter Nutrients: From Food to You
Nutrients provide energy, build and repair body cells, and keep your body working.

2 Content Vocabulary Academic Vocabulary nutrient carbohydrate sugar
starch fiber proteins vitamins minerals Recommended Dietary Allowances malnutrition supplement appropriate process

3 Nutrients for Wellness
More than 40 nutrients belong in six groups: carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water. nutrient A substance that perform a job in your body.

4 What Nutrients Do for You
Give you energy: your body uses energy even when you sleep Build and repair body cells: Proteins help build and repair cells and help you grow Regulate body processes: Body processes include breathing, digesting food, and building red blood cells process A function

5 How Digestion and Absorption Work
Esophagus Stomach Small Intestine Liver Large Intestine Mouth

6 Meet the Nutrients Carbohydrates: Your Main Energy Source
A carbohydrate is an important nutrient that helps proteins and fats do their regular jobs. carbohydrate A nutrient that serves as the body’s main energy source.

7 Meet the Nutrients Sugar is a simple carbohydrate because it is made of one or two sugar units. sugar A simple carbohydrate that are digested quickly.

8 Meet the Nutrients Starch is broken down during the digestion process into single sugars, which are used to make energy. starch Many sugar units attached together.

9 Meet the Nutrients Complex carbohydrates are starches and fiber. fiber
fiber Plant material that cannot be digested.

10 Foods with Carbohydrates
Grain products Starchy vegetables Legumes

11 Fats: Nutrients Essential to Your Health
Fats provide energy, insulate you from heat and cold, and cushion vital organs. Fats are naturally present in meat, poultry, fish, dairy foods, and nuts. Eating too much fat increases your risk of heart disease. Types of Fats Saturated Fats Unsaturated Fats Trans Fats Physical Mental Social Emotional Wellness Cholesterol is a fat-like substance found in body cells. High levels in the bloodstream have been linked to heart disease.

12 Proteins: Your Body’s Building Blocks
Proteins are needed for growth and fighting disease, are made of many small units called amino acids, and help give you energy if you do not take in enough carbohydrates and fats. Types and Sources of Protein: Complete proteins Incomplete proteins proteins Substances that the body uses to build new cells and repair injured ones.

13 Water is a Nutrient! Every body cell contains water.
Water helps digestive process by eliminating waste. Water carries nutrients. Water helps regulate body temperature.

14 Vital Vitamins Vitamins do not provide energy or build body tissue, but your body cannot produce energy without them. Fat-soluble vitamins—A, D, E, and K—dissolve in fat. Excess amounts can build up to harmful levels in your body. vitamins Nutrients that help regulate body processes and help other nutrients do their work.

15 Mighty Minerals Your body uses minerals for many processes. minerals
Inorganic nutrients that are essential for health and growth.

16 Build Strong Bones for Life
Bones grow with the help of calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium. Your need for calcium is highest during your teen years.

17 Eat Right for Healthy Blood
Iron helps red blood cells carry oxygen to all your cells. If you do not eat enough foods with iron, you many develop anemia.

18 Nutrients and Energy What are Calories? Energy in Food
Calories are not a food ingredient or nutrient, instead, they are units the measure energy. Energy in Food Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins provide energy. Energy Your Body Uses Food provides energy so your body can do its work, even for sleep. Energy in Balance When you balance the energy from your food and drinks with the amount your body uses, you maintain your weight.

19 Nutrient Advice The Recommended Dietary Allowances are part of the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) from the Institute of Medicine. Poor nutrition can cause malnutrition. Recommended Dietary Allowance Governmental advice about daily nutrient needs for most healthy people. Malnutrition Poor nutrition.

20 Nutrient Advice Dietary supplements may be sold as pills, capsules, liquids, or powders. With wise food choices, you probably do not need a supplement. supplements Contains nutrients or other food substances that add to your diet.

21 After You Read Review Key Concepts
List the three main nutrient functions. The six categories of nutrients are: carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water.

22 After You Read Review Key Concepts
List food sources of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water. Food sources of carbohydrates are grain products, such as breads, cereal, rice, grits, and pasta; starchy vegetables, such as squash, potatoes, and corn; and legumes, such as beans, peas, and lentils. Food sources of fat are meat, poultry, fish, dairy foods, and nuts. Food sources of proteins are food from animal sources, such as meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy products or from soy for complete proteins, or plant sources such as beans, peas, grains, and nuts for incomplete proteins. Water can come from plain water, juice, milk, and soups, as well as most foods. Vitamins and minerals come from a variety of foods.

23 After You Read Review Key Concepts
Explain energy balance. Energy balance is consuming the same amount of energy, or calories, as your body uses. When you balance the energy from your food and drinks with the amount your body uses, you maintain your weight. If you eat more food and drinks than the amount your body uses, you gain weight. If you eat less food or drinks than the amount your body uses, you lose weight.

24 After You Read Review Key Concepts
Describe the possible effects of getting too few or too many nutrients. Getting too few nutrients may result in poor health or a lack of energy. If you get too much of a nutrient, the body gets rid of extra water-soluble vitamins as waste. Extra energy from carbohydrates, proteins, or fats turns into body fat. If you take too many fat-soluble vitamins, as well as some minerals, they can build up in the body and create health problems.

25 After You Read Review Key Concepts
Describe the safe use of dietary supplements. Health professionals may recommend supplements for specific reasons including calcium supplements for people who are allergic to milk, or to some elderly people, pregnant or nursing women, people on certain medications, or those recovering from illness. Taking large amounts of these vitamins may cause health problems. Some water-soluble supplements can cause your kidneys to work too hard to remove the excess, while others may harm your liver and other organs.

26 Nutrients: From Food to You
End of Chapter 7 Nutrients: From Food to You

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