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Published byBernice Sullivan Modified over 7 years ago
Introduction to Nutrition
What is Nutrition? Study of how our bodies uses food. Nutrients are food that your body needs to function. Some nutrients can be made by body Other nutrients must be consumed Diet- pattern of eating
Why Do We Eat? 1. Meet nutritional needs. 2. Satisfy appetite. 3. Supply the body with energy. What is hunger? What is appetite?
Influence on Food 5 factors influence choice on food 1. Personal Preferences 2. Cultural Background 3. Time & Convenience 4. Friends 5. Media
Nutrients Substances that the body needs to regulate bodily functions, promote growth, repair body tissues, and obtain energy 1.Carbohydrates 2.Fats 3.Proteins 4.Vitamins 5.Minerals 6.Water
Foods Supply Energy Metabolism- body breaks down food to release energy. Calories- amount of energy released. 200 Calories 375 Calories 180 Calories 110 Calories 90 Calories
Carbohydrates Made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen Recommend 45-64% of daily intake be from Carbs. Complex Carbs- try for whole grain
Carbohydrates Simple Carbs Aka “Sugars” Occur naturally in fruits, milk, vegetables Glucose is major provider of energy Complex Carbs Sugars linked together 2 types of complex carbs Starches Broken into sugars Fiber Not absorbed into blood Helps prevent constipation Lower colon cancer risk Lower Heart Disease
Fats Made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in different proportions. Recommend 20-30% of daily intake from fats. Functions: Supply energy Form cells Maintain body temperature Protect nerves
Fats Unsaturated Fats Usually liquid at room temperature. Vegetable oil, nuts, seeds Increase HDL Two categories Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Can help fight heart disease Saturated Fats Solid at room temperature. Limit to 10% of calories Increase LDL Animal fat Lard and dairy products Too much lead to heart disease
Fats Cholesterol fatlike substance that is found only in animal products. Trans fat manufacturers add hydrogen to the fat molecules in vegetable oils
Protein Made of nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, carbon Functions: Energy supply Growth & repair Daily recommendation is 10-35%.
Protein Complete Protein From Animals Meat, fish Contain all 9 essential amino acids Incomplete Protein From Plants Beans Lacks one or more of essential amino acids Made from amino acids Body needs 20 amino acids Your body makes 11 Must consume 9 (essential amino acids)
Nutrients Vitamins, Minerals, & Water
What are Vitamins? Made by living things, are required only in small amounts, and that assist many chemical reactions in the body Some vitamins your body makes Others must be consumed Two categories of vitamins
Vitamins Fat-Soluble VitaminsWater Soluble Vitamins A, D, E, K Vegetable oils, eggs, vegetables Can be stored in body B, C Fruits and vegetables Cannot be stored in body Antioxidants- protect cells from aging process. - Vitamins C and E
Vitamins ALiver, eggsMaintains healthy skin DMilk, sunMaintains bones EWhole GrainsMaintenance of RBC KGreen, leafy vegetables Blood clotting
What are Minerals? Nutrients that occur naturally in rocks and soil Only required in small amounts Need 7 minerals in significant amounts Potassium- Calcium Magnesium- Sodium Phosphorus- Sulfur Chlorine
Major Minerals CalciumSodium Blood clotting Function & Maintenance of bones Milk, dairy, broccoli, tofu. Table salt, canned soup, frozen pizza Important for water balance Too much can cause high blood pressure
Water 65% of your body is water. Nearly all of the body’s chemical reactions, including those that produce energy and build new tissues, take place in a water solution.
Water Helps maintain homeostasis steady state inside your body Become overheated, you sweat Helps prevent dehydration Females 8 cups of water Males 10 cups of water Water Vs. Sports Drink 2 cups of fluid before exercise Do not need sports drink if 60 minutes or less
Dietary Guidelines for Americans Provide information on how to make smart food choices Balance food intake with physical activity Get the most nutrition out of the calories you consume Choose Nutrient-dense foods Handle food safely Dietary Guidelines
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