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Cinematography  Process of capturing moving images on film.

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Presentation on theme: "Cinematography  Process of capturing moving images on film."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cinematography  Process of capturing moving images on film.

2 3 key terms in shooting a movie  Shot- one uninterrupted run of the camera ( can be short or long)  Takes- refers to the number of times a shot is taken  Setup- one camera position and everything associated with it

3 The Job of the Cinematographer  Use the camera as maker of meaning  Use the powers of a visual language to tell the story and convey meaning of the movie

4 Cinematographer’s Responsibilities  Cinematographic properties of the shot (film stock, lighting, lenses)  Framing the shot (proximity to camera, depth, camera angle and height, scale, camera movement)  Speed and length of the shot  Special effects

5 Film Stock  Gauges- size of film (IMAX is 10 times the size of the standard size 35mm)  Color  Color film can not only be tinted but can be hand painted  Black and White  These do NOT lack color. There are tonal ranges, contrast of these tones and depth ranges that are considered when using black and white film.  Speed (degree to which it is light sensitive)

6 Lighting Source  Natural lighting  Artificial lighting  Focusable spotlights  Floodlights  Reflector board- most often used to redirect sunlight or cause shadows

7 Lighting Quality  Hard light- shines directly on the subject creating crisp details and defined border usually used with serious/ tragic stories  Soft light- light hits from various directions, blurring details, usually used with romantic or comic stories

8 Lighting Direction  3 point system- light can be thrown from virtually any direction  Key light- main light  Fill light (opposite key light)  Backlight- usually behind the subject  Lighting from above pg 152  Lighting from below pg 153  Backlighting p153

9 Lenses  2 types of Lenses  Prime lenses  Zoom lenses

10 Prime Lenses  Short-focal-length  Produce wide angle views  Make subject appear farther than they are  Long-focal-length  Flattens space  Makes subject look closer  Middle- focal- length  Corresponds to day-to-day normal sense of focus

11 Zoom lense  Produce images that stimulate effect of movement to or from subject  Magnifies image  Can make a shot seem artificial

12 Framing the Shot  Extreme long shot  Long shot  Medium long shot  Medium shot  Medium close-up  Close up  Extreme close up

13 Camera Angle  Eye level angle- creates a “neutral attitude” toward subject(s)  High Angle- implies the observers sense of superiority to the subject  Low Angle- creates sense of feeling helpless in the presence of the subject  Dutch Angle- tilt shot, gives the impression that the world at view is out of balance  Aerial View- implies the observer’s omniscience.

14 Scale  Size and placement of a particular object or scene in relation to the rest. 

15 Camera Movement  Pan shot –camera moves horizontally on stationary tripod, good for setting, guides us to characters or actions that are important  Tilt shot- camera moves vertically on a stationary tripod  Dolly shot- (tracking shot) camera is on wheel support can move with the action or in/ out on subject, commonly used at moment of realization

16 Camera Movement cont.  Zoom - magnifies the image or demagnifies the image, different from “dolly’ing in on the image, the spatial relationships between object and camera do not change  Crane shot- camera is mounted on an elevating arm which also is able to move, giving the camera full horizontal and vertical capability  Handheld Camera- can be used to create more realism (like the viewer is actually there) or a loss of control

17 Frame  Framing controls what we see (what IS on the screen and what is left out) and how we see it (up close, far away, from above or below)  Framing is the POV (Point of View)  Omniscient POV  Single character POV  Group POV

18 Speed and Length of shot  Slow motion- can be used to reverse our expectations or heighten awareness  Fast motion- accelerates action by photographing it at less than normal speed and then projecting it at normal speed.  Long take- can run one to ten minutes while a normal take lasts on average 10 seconds.

19 Special Effects  Create the illusion of reality or a believable alternative reality  Fools the human eye into perceiving motion  Creates images that would be too dangerous, too expensive or impossible to achieve.

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