Presentation on theme: "Cinematography Process of capturing moving images on film."— Presentation transcript:
Cinematography Process of capturing moving images on film.
3 key terms in shooting a movie Shot- one uninterrupted run of the camera ( can be short or long) Takes- refers to the number of times a shot is taken Setup- one camera position and everything associated with it
The Job of the Cinematographer Use the camera as maker of meaning Use the powers of a visual language to tell the story and convey meaning of the movie
Cinematographer’s Responsibilities Cinematographic properties of the shot (film stock, lighting, lenses) Framing the shot (proximity to camera, depth, camera angle and height, scale, camera movement) Speed and length of the shot Special effects
Film Stock Gauges- size of film (IMAX is 10 times the size of the standard size 35mm) Color Color film can not only be tinted but can be hand painted Black and White These do NOT lack color. There are tonal ranges, contrast of these tones and depth ranges that are considered when using black and white film. Speed (degree to which it is light sensitive)
Lighting Source Natural lighting Artificial lighting Focusable spotlights Floodlights Reflector board- most often used to redirect sunlight or cause shadows
Lighting Quality Hard light- shines directly on the subject creating crisp details and defined border usually used with serious/ tragic stories Soft light- light hits from various directions, blurring details, usually used with romantic or comic stories
Lighting Direction 3 point system- light can be thrown from virtually any direction Key light- main light Fill light (opposite key light) Backlight- usually behind the subject Lighting from above pg 152 Lighting from below pg 153 Backlighting p153
Lenses 2 types of Lenses Prime lenses Zoom lenses
Prime Lenses Short-focal-length Produce wide angle views Make subject appear farther than they are Long-focal-length Flattens space Makes subject look closer Middle- focal- length Corresponds to day-to-day normal sense of focus
Zoom lense Produce images that stimulate effect of movement to or from subject Magnifies image Can make a shot seem artificial
Framing the Shot Extreme long shot Long shot Medium long shot Medium shot Medium close-up Close up Extreme close up
Camera Angle Eye level angle- creates a “neutral attitude” toward subject(s) High Angle- implies the observers sense of superiority to the subject Low Angle- creates sense of feeling helpless in the presence of the subject Dutch Angle- tilt shot, gives the impression that the world at view is out of balance Aerial View- implies the observer’s omniscience.
Scale Size and placement of a particular object or scene in relation to the rest.
Camera Movement Pan shot –camera moves horizontally on stationary tripod, good for setting, guides us to characters or actions that are important Tilt shot- camera moves vertically on a stationary tripod Dolly shot- (tracking shot) camera is on wheel support can move with the action or in/ out on subject, commonly used at moment of realization
Camera Movement cont. Zoom - magnifies the image or demagnifies the image, different from “dolly’ing in on the image, the spatial relationships between object and camera do not change Crane shot- camera is mounted on an elevating arm which also is able to move, giving the camera full horizontal and vertical capability Handheld Camera- can be used to create more realism (like the viewer is actually there) or a loss of control
Frame Framing controls what we see (what IS on the screen and what is left out) and how we see it (up close, far away, from above or below) Framing is the POV (Point of View) Omniscient POV Single character POV Group POV
Speed and Length of shot Slow motion- can be used to reverse our expectations or heighten awareness Fast motion- accelerates action by photographing it at less than normal speed and then projecting it at normal speed. Long take- can run one to ten minutes while a normal take lasts on average 10 seconds.
Special Effects Create the illusion of reality or a believable alternative reality Fools the human eye into perceiving motion Creates images that would be too dangerous, too expensive or impossible to achieve.