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The Visualization of a Script

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1 The Visualization of a Script
Film Technique

2 WHAT YOU MUST DO TODAY: 1. Read through this slide to familiarize yourself with types of shots and other film technique. 2. Pick 10 shots from the list to find examples of online from actual films (use google image to search). 3. Compile these images on a Google Doc, with the type of shot labeled. 4. Place this in your TAG folder (with your name).

3 Mise-en-scene Mise-en-scène is a French term and originates in the theater. It means, literally, "put in the scene." For film, it has a broader meaning, and refers to almost everything that goes into the composition of the shot, including the composition itself: framing, movement of the camera and characters, lighting, set design and general visual environment, even sound as it helps elaborate the composition. Mise-en-scène can be defined as the articulation of cinematic space, and it is precisely space that it is about.

4 The Shot a single, uninterrupted piece of film. EXAMPLES:
Long Shot: the object on the screen appears small or appears to be seen from some distance away. Close-up or Close Shot: the object or subject takes up nearly 80 percent of the screen space and therefore appears to be very large.

5 TYPES OF SHOTS Aerial Shot: An exterior shot filmed from — hey! — the air. Often used to establish a (usually exotic) location. All films in the '70s open with one — FACT. Arc Shot: A shot in which the subject is circled by the camera. Beloved by Brian De Palma, Michael Bay.

6 TYPES OF SHOTS Medium Shot: The shot that utilizes the most common framing in movies, shows less than a long shot, more than a close-up. Obviously. Cowboy Shot: A shot framed from mid thigh up, so called because of its recurrent use in Westerns. When it comes, you know Clint Eastwood is about to shoot somebody.

7 TYPES OF SHOTS Deep Focus: A shot that keeps the foreground, middle ground and background ALL in sharp focus. Soft Focus: to blur an image slightly. Rack Focus: this technique is used to bring either the background or the foreground suddenly into focus.

8 TYPES OF SHOTS Low Angle: the camera is below the subject, which exaggerates size and strength. High Angle: the camera is above the subject, which presents objects as a little weaker and less in control. Dutch Angle: the camera itself tilts slightly, but the effect is the same. The image appears sideways, to one extent or another, within the frame.

9 TYPES OF SHOTS Pan: the camera pivots along the horizontal axis.
Tilt: the camera moves up and down – tilting along the vertical axis. Zoom: the focal length of the lens changes, thus making the object appear to move closer or further away.

10 TYPES OF SHOTS Tracking or Dolly Shots: the camera is on wheels or on a dolly, so it can move smoothly with the objects. Establishing Shot: A shot, at the head of the scene, that clearly shows the locale the action is set in. Often comes after the aerial shot. Handheld Shot: A shot in which the camera operator holds the camera during motion to create a jerky, immediate feel.

11 TYPES OF SHOTS Locked Down Shot: A shot where the camera is fixed in one position while the action continues off-screen. It says life is messy and can not be contained by a camera. Over-the-Shoulder Shot: A shot where the camera is positioned behind one subject's shoulder, usually during a conversation. It implies a connection between the speakers as opposed to the single shot that suggests distance.

12 TYPES OF SHOTS POV Shot: A shot that depicts the point of view of a character so that we see exactly what they see. Often used in Horror cinema to see the world through a killer's eyes. The Sequence Shot (or) Continuous Take: A long shot that covers a scene in its entirety in one continuous sweep without editing.

13 TYPES OF SHOTS Low-key Lighting: the main characteristics of this shot are darkness, shadows, and patches of bright key light. High-key Lighting: this type of lighting is distinguished by its brightness, openness, and lack of shadows or contrasts between light and dark. Neutral Lighting: when the lighting is even and balanced throughout the shot.

14 Sound: includes dialogue, music, sound effects, as well as pitch, timbre, direction.
The Fade: this type of edit occurs when the image on-screen slowly fades away and the screen itself is entirely black (or some other color) for a noticeable period of time, and then a new image slowly fades in from that black screen. The Dissolve: the image slowly begins to fade out, but instead of fading all the way to black, it is replaced by another image that is slowly fading in.

15 The Crosscut: also called parallel editing, which allows the director to show that events occurring in different spaces are happening simultaneously. The Flashback and Flash-forward: this method of connecting shots is designed to give the viewer important information about what has happened in the past or to take the audience ahead of the story’s present time.

16 Helpful Resources Hitchcock Analysis site: 5 Modern Directors and their style:

17 FUTURE PLANNING You should begin working on your Director’s Presentations. Decide in your group what director and which three films you will tackle. Divide and conquer—assign tasks/roles. The presentations due are after Spring Break, as are your beat sheets, so begin watching and writing now!

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