2 Long Shot It establishes the scene Shows subjects in their surroundingsTells the viewer where the action is taking place
3 Medium Shot Used to introduce a character for the first time Framing is usually set so that the top of the frame is just above the head and the bottom of the fame is just below the waist
4 Medium Close-up Tighter than a medium shot The top of the frame is just above the character’s head and the bottom of the frame is just below the chest
5 Close-up Used to reveal a character’s feelings. Restrict how much of a scene and/or action the audience sees.The top of the frame is just above the character’s head and the bottom of the frame is just below the chin.
6 Extreme Close UpOften used to reveal feelings WITHOUT using dialogue or to provide the audience with a view of a specific detailExamples include a person’s eyes, mouth, or hands, or an inanimate object such as the contents of a letter
7 Long ShotMedium ShotClose-Up ShotMedium Close-upExtreme Close-up
10 Over the ShoulderShooting over-the-shoulder of one subject to reveal another subject.The speaker’s full face is shown while the camera is aimed over the shoulder of the listenerUsed in interview situations.
11 Straight AngleThe camera is placed directly in front of the talent at eye-level and is used to involve the audience with the actionExample would be the shot used during the anchors delivery of the news
12 Eye Level Most commonly used angle Whether the subject is standing or seated and regardless of how small or tall your subject may be.
17 High AngleThe camera is above the subject matter and is aimed down (shoots downward).This angle has the effect of reducing the apparent height of the subject & gives the impression that the subject is smaller and less powerful.
20 Dollying Placing the camera on a tripod with wheels Allows camera to follow the action while maintaining a steady, non-shaky shot
21 PanThe camera is moved horizontally from left to right or right to left (much like a head shaking from left to right to say “no”).Used to follow the action
22 TiltThe camera is moved vertically up or down (much like a head nodding “yes”)Can be used to follow something as it falls, or rises
23 Zoom Accomplished by pressing the W or the T on the zoom control. Brings the viewer closer to or further away from the action
24 Tricky ShotsMatch Cut - Changing camera angles without breaking the continuity of motion from scene to sceneImagine a Long Shot, Side Angle scene of someone walking, then dropping something; then, in the next scene you have a Close-Up Shot, Straight Angle of the person’s face showing his/her reaction to the dropping of the item. Although the scene may actually have been filmed using two cameras or the action may have been stopped in order for the one and only camera to change positions, the audience never notices any disruption in the action.
26 What is screen direction? Screen direction is the direction people and objects face when viewed through the camera. When shooting a scene, place the center of interests on an imaginary line. This line should not be crossed by the cameraperson to avoid reversal of screen direction.
27 Example of Screen Direction In this example, the elephant did NOT change directions; instead, the photographer is simply on the other side of the elephant in each separate picture (thus, making it appear that the elephant is walking in two different directions.Reversing the screen direction (crossing that imaginary line) confuses the audience and makes them think the subject is going in the opposite direction from which they came
28 CompositionThe arranging or placing of elements in a shot.
29 Rule of ThirdsThe viewfinder screen is divided into thirds horizontally and vertically (like a tic-tac-toe board). When framing a shot, the cameraperson should consider these imaginary lines by preferably placing the center of interest at one of the four intersecting points or on one of the lines.
30 Head RoomA person’s head should be appropriately placed in the shot. Don’t cut off the top of their head, but don’t leave so much space above their head that it distracts from their face.Good Example of HeadroomBad Example of Headroom
31 Leading LooksWhen shooting a person or object in profile, leave space in front of the person or object.
32 Leading LinesLines that are in the environment may be used to lead to the center of interest.
33 Level Horizon Keep the horizon level. A sloping horizon – or a floor that doesn’t appear horizontal is distracting to viewers.
34 FramingElements in the environment, such as trees and arches, etc., may be used to create a border or frame around the shot.
35 BackgroundElements in the environment may distract the viewer from the center of interest. Be aware of bright colors, moving objects, and any objects that appear to grow out of peoples’ heads or blend with a person.