Presentation on theme: "Framing Looking at what is in the shot. What is a shot? Shots are defined by the subject matter that is included within the frame of the screen. When."— Presentation transcript:
What is a shot? Shots are defined by the subject matter that is included within the frame of the screen. When discussing shots and framing, we look at where the objects are placed and how much is included In general, shots are determined by how much of a human figure is in view.
1. Extreme Long Shot Taken from a great distance Almost always exterior and shows much of the location People appear tiny and insignificant Often used in Epic films, where location is important: westerns, war films, samurai films, and historical movies Also used as an “establishing shot” to establish the setting of a scene
ELS, example Okaeri (Japan, 1995) The setting dominates most of this shot. The people are dwarfed, making the appear insignificant. They are nearly swallowed up by the setting, which further creates a feeling of starkness and vulnerability.
Long Shot Least specific, most commonly used shot. Like eye-level camera angle, the full shot is neutral. Sometimes called “Full Shot,” barely includes the whole human body. Long shot establishes actors within their settings.
LS, example Clockwork Orange (England, 1971) We notice that the man in the middle, with the most prominent weapon. As our eye is drawn to him, we feel that he is most in charge (or, possibly, most threatening)
Medium Shot Shows the figure from the knees or waist up. Draws attention to the character, especially during dialogue or carrying movement.
Types of MS These variations on the Medium shot are often used for dialog: –Two shot – shows two people in the frame –Three shot – shows three people –Over-the-Shoulder shot – contains two figures, one with back to the camera, one facing the camera
Two Shot (note the feeling of intimacy created by proximity of figures and cropping of background) Over-the-Shoulder (this shot gives feeling of back-and- forth nature of conversation)
Close Up Shows very little, if any locale and concentrates on one object (often the face). Since close ups magnifies the size of an object, it tends to suggest importance. Often used to show emotion on the face of characters.
CU, example Twin Peaks: Fire Walk With Me (USA, 1992)
Extreme Close Up The most extreme variation of a close up. Instead of a whole face, the shot might only show an eye or mouth
ECU, example Texas Chainsaw Massacre (USA, 1974)
Establishing Shot Establishes the location of a certain scene or film. Often found at the beginning of a sequence.
Freeze Frame One shot of movement in order to make an interesting illusion of a still photograph.
Over the Shoulder This shot is framed from behind a person who is looking at the subject. The person facing the subject should usually occupy about 1/3 of the frame. This shot helps to establish the position of each person, and get the feel of looking at one person from the other's point of view. It's common to cut between these shots during a conversation, alternating the view between the different speakers (Shot Reverse Shot).
Reaction Shot Catches the viewers reaction to an event.
Rule of Thirds An image is divided into nine equal parts. The main subject is placed along these lines or their intersections.
Camera Movement Horizontal and vertical camera movements include: Pan Swish Pan Tilt
Camera Movement in Three Dimensions Tracking Shots Crane Shots Aerial Shots Handheld Shots Steadicam Shots
Lenses and Filters: The Frame in Depth Depth of Field: “the range of acceptable sharpness before and behind the plane of focus” (American Cinematographers Manual) A shallow depth of field means very little is in focus in front of or behind the subject (character). This may contribute to the sense that the subject is separated from the environment, not a part of it.
Lenses and the Perception of Depth Lenses have differing focal lengths (distance from lens to film surface), which give rise to different visual properties. The most common types of lenses are normal, wide-angle, and telephoto lenses.
Properties of Normal Lenses Film shot with a normal lens will not have any noticeable distortions of space because these lenses capture the relation of foreground to background and to objects the way the human eye sees those relationships.
Properties of wide-angle lenses These lenses offer a wider angle of view than normal lenses (or the human eye). They also provide the illusion of greater depth. With these lenses, the distance between foreground and background appears greater than it actually is.
Extreme wide-angle lenses They distort the spatial characteristics of the image (relative to the normal lens or human eye) so that straight lines appear to be curved.
Properties of telephoto lenses These lenses magnify the image, allowing cinematographers to shoot the subject from a great distance (they are used by paparazzi, for example). With telephoto lenses, the distance between foreground and background appears less than it actually is, compressing the viewer’s sense of on-screen space. If the background details of a shot do not appear to be in focus, this is probably because a telephoto lens has been used.
Zooms and Trombone shots Zoom lenses have a variable focal length, which allows directors to shift from wide-angle to telephoto perspectives in a single shot, called a zoom. Trombone shots combine movement of the camera (toward or away from the subject) and a zoom lens (moving from wide-angle to telephoto or vice versa) to destabilize space.