Presentation on theme: "Cinematography The manipulations of the film strip by the camera in the shooting phase and by the laboratory in the developing phase. What is involved?"— Presentation transcript:
Cinematography The manipulations of the film strip by the camera in the shooting phase and by the laboratory in the developing phase. What is involved? Photographic aspects of the shot Framing of the shot Duration of the shot
"writing in the movement” the Cinematographer/ Director of Photography is responsible the images we see on film manage and orchestrate the entire camera and lighting crew Traditionally - cinematography = film stock Modern - cinematography = video and computer modification
Photographic Aspects of Cinematography Film Stock: –Fast v slow film –Black and White v. Color Exposure Developing/printing Speed of motion: Slow-motion, fast-motion
Decisions made by the cinematographer affect the entire “look” of the film. Decisions are similar to that of a photographer controls the film itself, the lensing, aperture, exposure, focus and the distance of the shot. Cinematography is temporal whereas photography is captured in the still image.
Where a photographer works on his/her own a cinematographer works with a team Even the director
Film Stock & The Cinematographer overall artistic effect of the movie Decisions made through the film. Pre-production - selection of film stock Film stock can adversely affect how your intended film looks.
Slower/Low speed not as sensitive to light Starker and more "contrasty" blacks and whites with little range of grays in between. On the other hand, a faster (or high-speed) film stock will decrease contrast, giving a wider range of grays. Fast films are also grainier compared with slower ones.
The Camera Lens Focal Length: the distance from the center of the lens to the point at which the light rays meet in sharp focus. This length determines perspective relations and depth cues on the flat screen surface.
Zoom lens Lens with a focal length that can be changed during a shot. –Shift to telephoto range magnifies the image and flattens the space –Shift to wide-angle increases depth cues and demagnifies the background.
Retro-zoom Tracking back and zooming in,or Tracking in and zooming out CLIP: Punch-Drunk Love (P.T. Anderson, 2002)
Size of Shot The use of different shot sizes can influence the meaning which an audience will interpret. The size of the subject in frame depends on two things: the distance the camera is away from the subject and the focal length of the camera lens. Choice of shot size is also directly related to the size of the final display screen the audience will see.
Common shot sizes: Extreme close-up: Focuses on a single facial feature, such as lips and eyes. Close-up: May be used to show tension.Close-up Medium shot: Often used, but considered bad practice by many directors, as it often denies setting establishment and is generally less effective than the Close-up.Medium shot Long shot has much more dramatic power on a large theater screen, whereas the same shot would be powerless on a small TV or computer screen.Long shot Establishing shot: Mainly used at a new location to give the audience a sense of locality.Establishing shot
TYPES OF ANGLES Aerial shot American shot Bird's eye shot Close up Crane shot Dolly zoom Dutch angle Establishing shot Follow shot Forced perspective Freeze frame shot High-angle shot Long shot Long take Low-angle shot Master shot Matte Medium shot Pan shot Point of view shot Reaction shot Sequence shot Shot Shot reverse shot SnorriCam Tilt (camera) Talking head Tracking shot Trunk shot Two Shot Video frame
Lighting technique and aesthetics Light is necessary to create an image exposure on a frame of film or on a digital target (CCD, etc.). The art of lighting for cinematography goes far beyond basic exposure, however, into the essence of visual storytelling. Lighting contributes considerably to the emotional response an audience has watching a motion picture.