Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Cinematography and videography. Conveying meaning visually Semantic and iconic representation Iconic: – Cinematography/videography – Direction/blocking.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Cinematography and videography. Conveying meaning visually Semantic and iconic representation Iconic: – Cinematography/videography – Direction/blocking."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cinematography and videography

2 Conveying meaning visually Semantic and iconic representation Iconic: – Cinematography/videography – Direction/blocking – Set design – Costuming/makeup – Visual effects – Editing

3 Process Pre-production – Storyboarding: The director develops a set of shots to go with the proposed story (scenes, etc.) to be used to manage production – Production design: Sets, finding locations, etc. Production – Camerawork – Set design – Blocking Post-production – Editing – Visual effects/compositing

4 Storyboarding




8 Cinematography/videography The art and science of capturing the visual content necessary to construct the narrative on film or videotape

9 Major concerns What will be included in each shot? – Framing and composition What position will the camera take with regard to the mise-en-scene? – Distance – Angle – Movement What will be in focus/out of focus? How will the scene be lit? How will color and tint affect the images? How sharp will the image be?

10 Camera position: Distance from subject The physical distance of the camera (viewpoint) from the subject affects the audience reaction to the scene – The shorter the distance, the more likely the audience is to identify with the actor/character – The ‘closer’ the audience member is to the character the more powerful the emotional reaction Can see the actor’s face, body movement, etc.

11 Distance from subject When the camera is ‘far away’ from the subject, it can provide a great deal of information about the scene, the context, action other than that engaged in by the subject, etc. – Allows audience to make sense of what is going on in the scene “Establishing shot”

12 Deep v. shallow space


14 Distance from subject Source: David Chandler

15 Depth of field The size of the area that is in focus in a shot – Lenses vary in the depth they bring into focus, image size, etc.

16 Deep v. shallow focus Choice of lenses Experience of depth Breadth of focused field New lenses allow for focus throughout a very deep field Focus does not have to be fixed – Zoom lens


18 Deep v. shallow focus

19 Wide angle lensTelephoto lens

20 Zoom inTrack in

21 Pulling/rack focus

22 Angle to subject When the subject is ‘below’ the audience member it tends to make the subject seem weak or pitiful When the audience is looking ‘up’ at a subject it tends to make that subject look powerful or in command These are tendencies and are not universally true

23 Angle to subject

24 Camera movement

25 Modern technology has allowed for much greater camera mobility than was the case in early film or television Dollies/tracks Cranes Wires Hand-held – Steady-cam


27 Camera movement Rotation/pivot of the camera while on a fixed stand: – Up and down: tilt – Side to side: pan – Turn: roll Camera stand moves: – Side to side: Usually called tracking, but may be called trucking, crabbing or dollying – Forward or backward: Usually called dollying but may be called tracking, trucking or crabbing – Up or down: Pedestalling (Ped up or down) Movement that goes in multiple directions and usually requires a crane is ‘craning’

28 Smooth v. shaky movement Hand-held Steadycam Motion control

29 Functions of camera movement Reframing – When a character moves, camera moves to provide adequate headspace, avoid cutting off limbs, etc. – Helps fix the viewer’s eye on important characters and objects

30 Functions of camera movement Following – Maintain contact with a character

31 Functions of camera movement Direct audience to information unknown to characters – Identify important information that will be used later in the narrative

32 Functions of camera movement Help to create suspense or surprise – Prevent the audience from seeing something until the last second

33 Functions of camera movement Provide a particular position for the viewer – Omniscient – Subjective – Objective

34 Lighting (

35 Three point lighting Key lightFill lightBack light

36 Multi-camera production

37 Single-camera production

38 High key lighting

39 Low key lighting The Man Who Wasn’t There Citizen Kane

40 Film exposure Overexposure makes film look grainier and in higher contrast and saturates the colors

41 YALE FILM STUDIES Film Analysis Web Site 2.0

Download ppt "Cinematography and videography. Conveying meaning visually Semantic and iconic representation Iconic: – Cinematography/videography – Direction/blocking."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google