Presentation on theme: "Cinematography and videography. Conveying meaning visually Semantic and iconic representation Iconic: – Cinematography/videography – Direction/blocking."— Presentation transcript:
Conveying meaning visually Semantic and iconic representation Iconic: – Cinematography/videography – Direction/blocking – Set design – Costuming/makeup – Visual effects – Editing
Process Pre-production – Storyboarding: The director develops a set of shots to go with the proposed story (scenes, etc.) to be used to manage production – Production design: Sets, finding locations, etc. Production – Camerawork – Set design – Blocking Post-production – Editing – Visual effects/compositing
Cinematography/videography The art and science of capturing the visual content necessary to construct the narrative on film or videotape
Major concerns What will be included in each shot? – Framing and composition What position will the camera take with regard to the mise-en-scene? – Distance – Angle – Movement What will be in focus/out of focus? How will the scene be lit? How will color and tint affect the images? How sharp will the image be?
Camera position: Distance from subject The physical distance of the camera (viewpoint) from the subject affects the audience reaction to the scene – The shorter the distance, the more likely the audience is to identify with the actor/character – The ‘closer’ the audience member is to the character the more powerful the emotional reaction Can see the actor’s face, body movement, etc.
Distance from subject When the camera is ‘far away’ from the subject, it can provide a great deal of information about the scene, the context, action other than that engaged in by the subject, etc. – Allows audience to make sense of what is going on in the scene “Establishing shot”
Angle to subject When the subject is ‘below’ the audience member it tends to make the subject seem weak or pitiful When the audience is looking ‘up’ at a subject it tends to make that subject look powerful or in command These are tendencies and are not universally true
Camera movement Rotation/pivot of the camera while on a fixed stand: – Up and down: tilt – Side to side: pan – Turn: roll Camera stand moves: – Side to side: Usually called tracking, but may be called trucking, crabbing or dollying – Forward or backward: Usually called dollying but may be called tracking, trucking or crabbing – Up or down: Pedestalling (Ped up or down) Movement that goes in multiple directions and usually requires a crane is ‘craning’
Smooth v. shaky movement Hand-held Steadycam Motion control
Functions of camera movement Reframing – When a character moves, camera moves to provide adequate headspace, avoid cutting off limbs, etc. – Helps fix the viewer’s eye on important characters and objects
Functions of camera movement Following – Maintain contact with a character
Functions of camera movement Direct audience to information unknown to characters – Identify important information that will be used later in the narrative
Functions of camera movement Help to create suspense or surprise – Prevent the audience from seeing something until the last second
Functions of camera movement Provide a particular position for the viewer – Omniscient – Subjective – Objective