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Economic Revolutions and Nationalism Unit 4, Lesson 2
Essential Idea New inventions and three economic revolutions created a new and NATIONAL economy.
Inventions and Innovations Many inventions impacted each area of the country Area Impacted: North Invention/Innovation: Textile mills Inventor: Samuel Slater Significance: Slater was called the “Father of the Factory System” Textile mills (factories) turned cotton from the South into manufactured cloth
Inventions and Innovations: North Invention/Innovation: Sewing machine Inventor: Elias Howe Significance: Helped turn manufactured cloth into clothing
Inventions and Innovations: North Invention/Innovation: Interchangeable parts Inventor: Eli Whitney Significance: Parts to manufactured products were made to be identical PARTS of products could be replaced instead of the WHOLE product FACTORIES were needed to mass produce interchangeable parts
Inventions and Innovations: North Overall Impact on the North: The North became industrialized, meaning their economy was based on the factory system
Inventions and Innovations: West Area Impacted: West Invention/Innovation: Steel plow Inventor: John Deere Significance: Farmers could plow larger pieces of land
Inventions and Innovations: West Invention/Innovation: Mechanical reaper Significance: Inventor: Cyrus McCormick Farmers could harvest larger pieces of land
Inventions and Innovations: North Overall Impact on the West: Many small farmers moved to the West to start larger farms McCormick and Farming
Inventions and Innovations: South Area Impacted: South Invention/Innovation: Cotton Gin Inventor: Eli Whitney Significance: Cotton could be processed 50 times faster Whitney THOUGHT the cotton gin would reduce the need for slaves
Inventions and Innovations: South Overall Impact on the South: Instead of dying out, slavery expanded drastically in the South Southern economy was dependent on COTTON and SLAVERY The South became known as the “Cotton Kingdom” Impact of the Cotton Gin
Industrial Revolution: Causes Cause 1: Inventions and Innovations Details: Factories in the NORTH were needed to make cloth, clothing, interchangeable parts, steel plows, mechanical reapers, and cotton gins
Industrial Revolution: Causes Cause 2: Government policies Details: New laws made it easier to start corporations Protective tariffs helped support growth of new businesses
Industrial Revolution: Causes Cause 3: Increased workforce Details: Immigrants, especially Irish, provided labor for factories Many Americans in the rural North migrated to cities to work in factories
Industrial Revolution: Effects Effects of the Industrial Revolution: Effect 1: North Industrializes Detail: Factories boomed in the North, not the South or West Effect 2: New Production Methods Details: Products were made by machines instead of by hand Big factories replaced small home- based workshops
Industrial Revolution: Effects Effect 3: Urbanization Detail: Cities grew as people moved to go work in factories Effect 4: Creation of Unions Detail: Eventually, factory workers formed unions to demand better working conditions
Transportation Revolution: Telegraph 1. Telegraph Samuel Morse- developed the telegraph for sending messages over long distances Information could be transported INSTANTLY, improving communication
Transportation Revolution: Roads 2. Roads National Road- first major interstate highway, over 600 miles long Expanding roads connected western farms to cities
Transportation Revolution: Water Travel 3. Steamboats and Canals More products could be shipped faster on water Steamboats: Robert Fulton invented the steamboat, which could travel faster and go upstream Robert Fulton’s Steamboat Canals: Canals were artificial rivers built to increase water transportation Erie Canal- built in New York, connecting western farmers to cities Canals
Transportation Revolution: Railroads 4. Railroads Railroads were could transport faster, carry more, and go farther than either roads or canals Railroads did the most to encourage westward expansion and settlement The North and South would fight over where to build transcontinental railroad to the Pacific Ocean
Impact of Transportation Revolution Impact of Transportation Revolution: Increased trade between the North, West, and South The strongest connection was between farms in the West and cities in the North This also encouraged more settlement in the West
Economic Revolution: Market Revolution The Market Revolution: The North, West, and South specialized in products Market Revolution- development of a NATIONAL economy based on trade between the North, West, and South People were less self- sufficient, buying products from other areas
The Market Revolution Area: North Products sent to West: Steel plows, mechanical reapers, clothing Products sent to South: Cotton gins, clothing
The Market Revolution Area: West Products sent to North: Food- Corn, wheat, livestock Products sent to South: Food- Corn, wheat, livestock
The Market Revolution Area: South Product sent to North: Cotton for textile mills Product sent to BRITAIN: Cotton for textile mills Why significant? During the Civil War, Britain almost helped the South because they wanted southern cotton
Market Revolution Inventions and Innovations: Changed how North, West, and South produced Industrial Revolution: Factories in the North built new products Transportation Revolution: Helped North, West, and South trade American System: Government supported the new economy Market Revolution: A new and NATIONAL economy formed
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