Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.


Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "UNIT 1 – UNDERSTANDING LIFE ON EARTH BIOMOLECULES."— Presentation transcript:



3 What elements from the periodic table support all life on Earth? Answer: CARBON HYDROGEN OXYGEN NITROGEN PHOSPHORUS 3

4 Carbon-based Molecules: 4 Organic chemistry: study of carbon compounds Carbon has 4 electrons in an outer energy level that holds eight; Can form 4 covalent bonds with many other elements

5 Shape of Organic Molecules: shape=functi on 5 The shape determines its function in an organism

6 Giant Molecules – Polymers: Large molecules are called polymers 6 Monomers link together to form larger molecules called polymers Biologists call polymers macromolecules or biomolecules

7 Linking Monomers: 7 Cells link monomers by removing a molecule of water Remove H Remove OH H 2 O Forms this process is called dehydration synthesis.

8 Breaking Down Polymers: Cells break down macromolecules by adding a molecule of water this process is called hydrolysis FYI When trying to lose weight, dietitians tell patients to drink more water to help in the breakdown and absorption of molecules. 8

9 Macromolecules in Organisms: There are four macromolecules: 9 Carbohydrates (CHO) Lipids (CHO) Proteins (CHON) Nucleic Acids (CHONP)


11 Monosaccharides: Monosaccharides are the monomers of carbohydrates; also called simple sugars Examples: glucose, fructose, & galactose Chemical Formula for monosaccharides is C 6 H 12 O 6 ; this a ratio of 1:2:1 Monosaccharides are the main fuel that cells use for cellular work; they are a source of quick energy Disaccharides (2 Sugars bonded); example – sucrose (table sugar)

12 Polysaccharides: Large sugar molecules; take longer for body to break down Starch is an example of a polysaccharide in plant cells Glycogen is a polysaccharide found in animal cells Starch and glycogen are extra amounts of sugar taken in by the cell and stored for later use Cellulose is a polysaccharide found in plant cell walls; most abundant organic compound on earth 12


14 Lipids: Lipids are hydrophobic –”water fearing”; they do not mix with water Includes fats, waxes, steroids and oils Functions – store energy Insulate body Cushion and protect organs Form cell membranes 14

15 Structure of Lipids: Triglyceride - Monomer of lipids Composed of 1 glycerol molecule and 3 fatty acid chains Glycerol forms the “backbone” of the triglyceride Triglycerides are composed mainly of carbon and hydrogen; oxygen is found only in the glycerol molecule 15

16 16 Most animal lipids exist as solids at room temperature (butter, lard, fat layer on steak/chicken, waxes) Most plant lipids tend to exist as liquids at room temperature (peanut, sunflower, canola oils) Lipids in Organisms:

17 Lipids & Cell Membranes: Cell membranes are made of phospholipids Phospholipids have a head that is polar; it attracts water (hydrophilic) Phospholipids also have 2 tails that are nonpolar and do not attract water (hydrophobic) 17

18 Steroids: Cholesterol is the “base steroid” from which your body produces other steroids Estrogen and testosterone are examples of these other steroids 18


20 Proteins: Proteins are large, folded polymers made of monomers called amino acids Elements in proteins: C, H, O and N Functions: Build cells Act as hormones Act as enzymes Cellular transport 20

21 Linking Amino Acids: This process is done by the ribosomes in the cell by removing a water molecule from the amino acids The process is called a condensation or dehydration reaction; forms peptide bonds 21

22 Enzymes are proteins What do enzymes do? Enzymes control the rate of chemical reactions Enzymes are also referred to as biological catalysts enzymes work by weakening bonds and lowering the amount of activation energy needed for the reaction Enzymes act on a substrate; they are specific to substrate 22

23 Enzyme + Substrate = Product: 23


25 Nucleic Acids Store hereditary information 25 Contain information for making all the body’s proteins Elements in nucleic acids: C, H, O, N and P Types of nucleic acids: DNA and RNA

26 Nucleic acids are polymers; Nucleotides are the monomers Nucleotides are composed of: 5-carbon sugar phosphate group nitrogeneous base

27 Nitrogeneous Bases: Each DNA nucleotide has one of the following bases: Each RNA nucleotide has one of the following bases: – Adenine (A) – Guanine (G) – Uracil (u) – Cytosine (C) 27 – Adenine (A) – Guanine (G) – Thymine (T) – Cytosine (C)

28 Shape of dna and rna: One strand of RNA forms a single helix Two strands of DNA join together to form a double helix 28

29 ATP ATP is the energy currency of cells Made of a nucleotide with 3 phosphate groups 29


Similar presentations

Ads by Google