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Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic Acids

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Presentation on theme: "Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic Acids"— Presentation transcript:

1 Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic Acids
Biological Molecules Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic Acids

2 Organic Molecules Always contain Carbon (C) and Hydrogen (H)
Carbon is missing four electrons Capable of forming 4 covalent bonds Carbon can bind with hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and itself! Forms long chains, branched, rings, etc

3 Organic Molecules Glucose, triglyceride/fat. Steroid (cholesterol), dissacharide (lactose?) *

4 Organic Molecules Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids etc are macromolecules Many molecules joined together Monomer Simple molecules Polymer Large molecules formed by combining monomers Terminology *

5 Organic Molecules Shows the monomers that make up each polymer *

6 Polymer Formation Making big molecules from small molecules
Requires water! Dehydration Synthesis Water is produced as monomers are combined together Know the process *

7 Polymer Breakdown Breaking big molecules into small molecules
Requires water! Hydrolysis Water breaks up the bonds in another molecule Requires enzymes (helping molecules) Know the process *

8 Showing both – figure from textbook

9 Sugars (glucose, sucrose, starch)
Carbohydrates Sugars (glucose, sucrose, starch)

10 All carbs have the formula Cn(H2O)n
Functions Short term energy supply Glucose produces ATP energy Short term energy storage Gycogen is stored in the liver and muscles Structure Plant cell walls, insect exoskeletons Cell Membrane markers Cell “identity tags” All carbs have the formula Cn(H2O)n Know the functions and the formula – hydrated carbon *

11 Monosaccharides Monosaccharides have 3-7 carbon atoms
Ex) Glucose, ribose, galactose, fructose Only one unit molecule Pentose = 5 carbons Hexose = 6 carbons “ose” = carbohydrate Know the structure of glucose enough to recognize it – ring with oxygen in it 6 carbons *

12 Disaccharides Two molecules together Formed from dehydration synthesis
Ex) Maltose, lactose Formed from dehydration synthesis Understand how dissacarides are formed in dehydration synthesis, small molecules so they can dissolve in water *

13 Polysaccharides Many molecules together Examples: Starch Glycogen
Repeating glucose subunits Examples: Starch Glucose storage in plants Straight chains with little branching Glycogen Glucose storage in animals Many side chains Know the differences between Starch Glycogen and Cellulose *

14 Notice the positions of the oxygens, large molecules can’t dissolve in water

15 Polysaccharides Cellulose In plant cell walls
No branching – alternating oxygen positions for more structure Cannot be digested - fiber Celery, keeps digestive system working, notice the oxygen pattern *

16 What to know about carbs
What is a carbohydrate (recognize formula and pictures) Functions Difference between cellulose, glycogen, and starch How to form disaccharides and polysaccharides

17 Lipids Fats, Oils, and Waxes

18 All lipids do not dissolve in water = hydrophobic
Functions Long term energy storage Pack energy into a small space Insulation and Padding Protects organs Structure Cell membranes Chemical Messengers Steroids All lipids do not dissolve in water = hydrophobic Not all fats are bad. Fats pack flat so they can fit more into a small space 9:1 ratio *

19 Types Fatty Acids Chain of carbons ending in COOH
Saturated Fatty Acids Solid at room temperature Bad for health Unsaturated Fatty Acids Contain double bonds Liquid at room temperature

20 Types Triclycerides Neutral Fats Glycerol + 3 Fatty Acids
Can be saturated or unsaturated Not polar = no dissolving in water *

21 Types Phospholipids Found in cell membrane Same structure as
triglyceride but one fatty acid is replaced with a phosphate group (polar) Hydrophilic phosphate head, hydrophobic fatty acid tail Can dissolve in water – water surrounds hydrophilic part and hydrophobic part bunches together. Emulsification and soap example *

22 Types Steroids Ringed structures made from cholesterol
Chemical messengers and form hormones Ex) Cholesterol, Testosterone, Estrogen Cholesterol is four rings - hormones have different things sticking off of those rings *

23 What to know about lipids
Know the function of lipids Know the difference between saturated and unsaturated Know the four types of lipids and be able to recognize their structure

24 Proteins

25 Functions Structure Movement Enzymes Transport Keratin and collagen
Actin and myosin Enzymes Speed up chemical reactions Transport Hemoglobin to carry oxygen in blood, proteins across cell membrane

26 Functions Antibodies Hormones Fight disease
Maintain cell function – insulin

27 Structure of Proteins Made of Amino Acids
Amine (NH3); Acid (COOH) 20 different amino acids have different R groups Must recognize the two groups on the end; 8 essential amino acids – we have to eat these in our diet *

28 Structure of Proteins Amino acids undergo dehydration synthesis to form Dipeptides (2 amino acids) Polypeptides (~3-20 amino acids) Proteins (many amino acids) Peptide bond is formed (polar) Be able to identify peptide bonds in long strings of amino acids *

29 Structure of Proteins (4 Levels)
Primary Structure Linear sequence of amino acids Secondary Structure Hydrogen bonding between amino acids Causes folding Alpha helix and beta sheets Draw helix and sheets to properly show H bonding. Identify the peptide bond (covalent) versus the hydrogen bonds *

30 Structure of Proteins (4 Levels)
Tertiary Structure 3D arrangement of amino acid chain Caused by covalent, ionic, and hydrogen bonding between R groups Precise shape = specific function Quaternary Structure More than one polypeptide chain grouped together Hemoglobin example, know how shape related to function. Know the different bonding between the structures *


32 Denaturing Proteins Cause protein to lose shape = not function
pH, temperature, chemicals and heavy metals disrupt bonds Ex) Heating an egg, adding vinegar to milk Know what denatures proteins *

33 What to know about proteins
Functions Monomer and how the polypeptide is formed Four levels of structure and what holds them together How to denature a protein

34 Nucleic Acids DNA and RNA

35 DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid Stores genetic information
Codes for the order of amino acids in proteins Made of nucleotides 5 carbon sugar (deoxyribose) Phosphate Nitrogenous bases Adenine (A) Thymine (T) Cytosine (C) Guanine (G)

36 DNA Structure The sugar and phosphate bond to form a backbone
Bases stick out and hydrogen bond with a second strand – antiparallel Strands wind around in a double helix


38 RNA Ribonucleic acid Helps in protein synthesis Made of nucleotides
5 carbon sugar (ribose) Phosphate Nitrogenous bases Adenine (A) Uracil (U) Cytosine (C) Guanine (G) Single stranded


40 ATP Adenosine Triphosphate Molecule of ENERGY
Energy is released during hydrolysis

41 What to know about Nucleic Acids
Function of DNA, RNA and ATP Structure of a nucleotide Differences between DNA and RNA

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