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Biomolecules Any molecule produced by a living organism

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Presentation on theme: "Biomolecules Any molecule produced by a living organism"— Presentation transcript:

1 Biomolecules Any molecule produced by a living organism
All biomolecules contain Carbon

2 Biomolecules Large molecules in living cells are known as biomolecules --- “giant molecules” biomolecules are made by joining smaller unites called MONOMERS together to for POLYMERS

3 The process of joining together monomers is known as POLYMERIZATION

4 4 groups of biomolecules
1.) carbohydrates 2.) lipids 3.) nucleic acids 4.) proteins

5 Carbohydrates Made up of carbons, hydrogen and oxygen atoms in a 1: 2: 1 ratio Uses: Main source of energy Structural purposes Monomers are known as MONOSACCHARIDES - MONOSACCHARIDES join to form POLYSACCHARIDES

6 CARBOHYDRATES Sugars (fruits, pasta, bread)
Contain C, H, O in a 1:2:1 ratio Used for energy Types: Monosaccharide Disaccharides Polysaccharides

7 The monosaccharides for carbs are simple sugars
Ex: Glucose, galactose, fructose

8 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates include:
Small sugar molecules in soft drinks Long starch molecules in pasta and potatoes

9 Monosaccharides: Called simple sugars
Include glucose, fructose, & galactose Have the same chemical, but different structural formulas C6H12O6

10 Monosaccharides Glucose is found in sports drinks
Fructose is found in fruits Honey contains both glucose & fructose Galactose is called “milk sugar”

11 Disaccharides A disaccharide is a double sugar
They’re made by joining two monosaccharides Involves removing a water molecule (dehydration)

12 Common disaccharides include:
Sucrose (table sugar) Lactose (Milk Sugar) Maltose (Grain sugar) Sucrose is composed of glucose + fructose

13 Polysaccharides Complex carbohydrates
Composed of many sugar monomers linked together Polymers of monosaccharide chains

14 Examples of Polysaccharides
Glucose Monomer Starch Glycogen Cellulose

15 Lipids Made mostly from carbon and oxygen atoms Uses:
Ex. Fats, oils, waxes Uses: Store Energy Important factor in cell membranes Chemical messengers

16 Function of Lipids Fats store energy, help to insulate the body, and cushion and protect organs

17 Lipids contain two parts:
1.) glycerol heads 2.) fatty acid chain tails

18 Glycerol + fatty acid tail

19 There are two types of lipids
1.) Saturated contain only single bonds Ex. Solid fat 2.) unsaturated contain double bonds Ex. Liquid fat

20 Fats in Organisms Most animal fats have a high proportion of saturated fatty acids & exist as solids at room temperature (butter, margarine, shortening)

21 Fats in Organisms Most plant oils tend to be low in saturated fatty acids & exist as liquids at room temperature (oils)

22 Lipids Do NOT mix with water Includes fats, waxes, steroids, & oils
Lipids are hydrophobic –”water fearing” Do NOT mix with water Includes fats, waxes, steroids, & oils FAT MOLECULE

23 Steroids The carbon skeleton of steroids is bent to form 4 fused rings Cholesterol Cholesterol is the “base steroid” from which your body produces other steroids Estrogen Testosterone Estrogen & testosterone are also steroids

24 Nucleic Acids Store hereditary information Contain information for making all the body’s proteins Two types exist --- DNA & RNA



27 Bases Adenine (A) Guanine (G) Thymine (T) Cytosine (C)
Each DNA nucleotide has one of the following bases: Thymine (T) Cytosine (C) Adenine (A) Guanine (G) Thymine (T) Cytosine (C) Adenine (A) Guanine (G)

28 NUCLEIC ACIDS DNA & RNA Made of nucleotides: sugar + a nitrogenous base a phosphate group Contain C, H, O, N & P Contain genetic information Control the activities of cells

29 Proteins Proteins are polymers made of monomers called amino acids All proteins are made of 20 different amino acids linked in different orders Proteins are used to build cells, act as hormones & enzymes, and do much of the work in a cell

30 Protein Macromolecules that contain nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen Monomers are called amino acids Amino acids have an amino group (-NH2) and a carboxyl group (-COOH)

31 Uses: Control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes.
Form bones and muscles Transport substance into or out of cells Help to fight disease

32 20 Amino Acid Monomers

33 Structure of Amino Acids
group Carboxyl group Amino acids have a central carbon with 4 things boded to it: R group Amino group -NH3 Carboxyl group -COOH Hydrogen -H Side groups Side group -R Serine-hydrophillic Leucine -hydrophobic

34 Proteins as Enzymes Thousands of different enzymes exist in the body
Many proteins act as biological catalysts or enzymes Thousands of different enzymes exist in the body Enzymes control the rate of chemical reactions by weakening bonds, thus lowering the amount of activation energy needed for the reaction

35 Primary Protein Structure
The primary structure is the specific sequence of amino acids in a protein Amino Acid

36 Protein Structures Hydrogen bond Pleated sheet Polypeptide
(single subunit) Amino acid (a) Primary structure Hydrogen bond Alpha helix (b) Secondary structure (c) Tertiary structure (d) Quaternary structure

37 Denaturating Proteins
Changes in temperature & pH can denature (unfold) a protein so it no longer works Cooking denatures protein in eggs Milk protein separates into curds & whey when it denatures

38 Changing Amino Acid Sequence
Substitution of one amino acid for another in hemoglobin causes sickle-cell disease 2 1 3 6 4 5 (a) Normal red blood cell Normal hemoglobin 2 1 3 6 4 5 (b) Sickled red blood cell Sickle-cell hemoglobin

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