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Vocabulary 16. Lipid Monosaccharide 17. Nucleotide Active site DNA

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Presentation on theme: "Vocabulary 16. Lipid Monosaccharide 17. Nucleotide Active site DNA"— Presentation transcript:

1 Vocabulary 16. Lipid Monosaccharide 17. Nucleotide Active site DNA
18. Wax 19. Phospholipid 20. Macromolecule 21. Hydrolysis 22. Protein 23. Amino Acid 24. Enzyme 25. Polysaccharide 26. Peptide bond 27. Condensation Reaction Monosaccharide Active site DNA Carbohydrate Polypeptide Functional Group Organic Compound Monomer RNA ATP Steroid Nucleic acid Polymer Disaccharide Substrate

2 The chemistry of carbon
is the chemistry of life!

3 Carbon Four electrons in its outermost energy level Very stable
Can form four covalent bond with other atoms

4 Organic Compounds Most organic compounds have functional groups.
Hydroxyl group of the butanol molecule

5 Functional Groups Functional groups attached to Carbon and influence the properties of the molecule and the chemical reactions the molecules undergo.

Monomer Polymer x Macromolecule Monomers link to form polymers through condensation reaction.

7 Hydrolysis Chemical process in which polymers are broken down into monomers with the addition of water

8 Molecules of Life Four main classes of organic compounds are essential to life processes of all living things: Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids Nucleic Acids

Carbohydrate 1:2:1 Ratio

10 Lipids Polar – carboxyl head Nonpolar – hydrocarbon tail

11 Steroids Carbon fused rings

12 Nucleic Acids Monomers = Nucleotides Phosphate group Nitrogenous base
Five carbon sugar

13 Proteins – Amino Acids (monomers)
Carboxyl group Amino group R group – distinguishes One from another

14 Carbohydrates Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of about two hydrogen atoms to one oxygen atom. Exist as monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. Primary source of energy in living things Chemically tested by use of Benedict’s Reagent (monosaccharides) and Iodine Test (polysaccharides)

15 Monosaccharide Disaccharide Polysaccharide
Simple Sugar, monomer of carbohydrates Bond together to form Disaccharides and Polysaccharides Glucose, Fructose, Galactose Disaccharide Double Sugar Formed through Condensation Synthesis of two monosaccharides Sucrose = Glucose+ Fructose Lactose = Galactose + Glucose Maltose = Glucose + Glucose Polysaccharide Starch Formed through Condensation Synthesis of three or more monosaccharides

16 Starch Two basic forms Glycogen Cellulose Long coil
Storage polysaccharide in animals Cellulose Highly branched Storage polysaccharide in plants Cellulose

17 Proteins Composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
Composed of many monomers called amino acids to form polypeptide chains Most enzymes are proteins Chemically tested by Biuret’s test.

18 Lipids Large nonpolar organic molecules that do not dissolve in water.
Have a higher ration of carbon and hydrogen atoms to oxygen atoms. Store energy Chemically tested using Sudan III or spot test Composed of long fatty acid chains linked to glycerol Saturated = single bonds Unsaturated = double bond Polyunsaturated = all double or triple bonds

19 Fatty acids have a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic end

20 Complex lipids Phospholipid - make up the cell membrane
Wax - a structural lipid which forms a protective coat oncells Steroids - composed of four fused carbon rings; make up hormones, cholesterol

21 Nucleic Acids Very large complex molecules that store important information in the cell Composed of chains of nucleotides Phosphate group Sugar Nitrogenous base DNA or RNA

22 Enzymes RNA or protein molecules that act as biological catalysts
Are essential for the functioning of any cell Enzyme reactions depend on a physical fit between the enzyme molecule and its specific substrate (the reactant being catalyzed)

23 Lock and key fit

24 The enzyme is unchanged and is available to be used again.
The change in the enzymes shape weakens some chemical bonds in Substrate and reduces the activation energy of the reaction so reactants can become products. The enzyme is unchanged and is available to be used again. Enzymes are temperature and pH specific Outside of optimal numbers and the enzyme changes shape, substrate will not fit.

25 Biological reactions + Enzymes
In living things, chemical reactions occur between large, complex biomolecules. Many of these reactions require large activation energies, the amount of energy needed for the reaction to occur. Many of these reactions would not occur quickly enough to sustain life without the help of enzymes.


27 2 reaction types Exergonic – release more energy than they absorb
Endergonic – Absorb more energy then they release


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