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Bio 1 Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids

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Presentation on theme: "Bio 1 Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids"— Presentation transcript:

1 Bio 1 Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids
Biological molecules Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids

2 Is it made of carbohydrates?

3 Bio 1 Carbohydrates

4 Bio 1 Carbohydrates Organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio. A carbohydrate with 6 carbon atoms would have… ______ hydrogen atoms and ______ oxygen atoms 12 6 Source of ENERGY Structural components of cells

5 Monosaccharides Monomer of carbohydrate (simple sugar)
Most have 6 carbon atoms Most common: 1) Glucose (main source of energy) 2) Fructose (found in fruits) 3) Galactose (found in milk)

6 Isomers Glucose, fructose, and galactose have the same chemical formula. C6H12O6 Same formula but different structural forms.

7 Disaccharides and polysaccharides
Disaccharide: two monosaccharides bond to form a double sugar. Example: sucrose Polysaccharide: complex molecule composed of three or more monosaccharides.

8 Polysaccharides in animals and plants
Bio 1 Polysaccharides in animals and plants Glycogen: animals store glucose in the form of the large, complex molecule – glycogen Starch: plants store glucose molecules in the form of starch. Cellulose: large polysaccharide made by plants, which provide strength and rigidity to plant cells.

9 White vs. whole grain Bio 1

10 White vs. whole grain Bio 1 White bread is a simple carbohydrate (little nutritional value, digested more quickly, converted to fat more quickly) Whole grain bread is a complex carbohydrate (high in fiber, vitamins and minerals, provide more energy, digested slowly)

11 Lipids

12 Lipids Large organic molecules Nonpolar – do NOT dissolve in water
Bio 1 Lipids Large organic molecules Nonpolar – do NOT dissolve in water Include phospholipids, triglycerides, waxes, steroids Higher ratio of carbon and hydrogen to oxygen than carbohydrates…. More C-H bonds Store more energy per gram than most other organic compounds Butter oil demo

13 Fatty Acids Hydrocarbon End Carboxyl End C-H -COOH Nonpolar Polar
Bio 1 Fatty Acids Carboxyl End -COOH Polar Hydrophilic Hydrocarbon End C-H Nonpolar Hydrophobic

14 Bio 1 Saturated: Each carbon atom is single-bonded to 4 other atoms; straight chain; molecules are close together; solid at room temperature Unsaturated: Double bonds in the C chain; kinked chain; molecules are farther apart; liquid at room temperature

15 Types of fatty acids: Saturated vs Unsaturated
luRs Let’s list some more differences in the form and function of fatty acids

16 Types of Lipids made of fatty acids
Triglycerides (FATS) 3 fatty acids molecules joined to 1 glycerol Saturated triglycerides are composed of saturated fatty acids (butter, other dairy products, fat from red meat) Unsaturated triglycerides are composed of unsaturated fatty acids (mostly found oils and in plant seeds)

17 Types of Lipids made of fatty acids
Phospholipids Glycerol is connected to 2 fatty acid molecules and a phosphate group. The plasma membrane of the animal and plant cells are composed of a phospholipid bilayer.

18 Types of Lipids made of fatty acids
Waxes Composed of a long fatty acid chain and a long alcohol chain. Waterproof and provide protection. Found on the surface of plants and in the ear canals of many animals (including humans).

19 Steroids NOT composed of fatty acids
Four fused carbon rings which are attached to other functional groups Cholesterol (found in the cell and plasma membrane) Hormones such as testosterone and estrogen

20 Proteins

21 Is it made of Proteins?

22 Proteins ~ What are they?
Organic molecules compose of hydrogen, carbon, oxygen and NITROGEN Monomers = AMINO ACIDS Examples: Hair Horns Skin Muscles ENZYMES (to learn more about later!)

23 Amino Acids (AA) 20 different AA
Central carbon, C, that is covalently bonded to 4 other groups Hydrogen = blue Carboxyl (-COOH) = green Amine (-NH2) = yellow R group = red (varies in each AA and determines the AA’s form and function AA can also be illustrated as a ball

24 DiPeptides and polypeptides
Dipeptide: two amino acids bond Polypeptides: long chains of amino acids (made up of 1 or more dipeptide) Making proteins: what builds them? Reaction: condensation or hydrolysis Water is released or used

25 DiPeptides and polypeptides
Some proteins are very large, some are small. Protein shape: Influences its function (form and function) Shape can be influenced by factors like temperature and solvent) … for example, egg white is clear when it is uncooked, and white when it is cooked

26 ENZYMES RNA or protein molecules that act as biological catalysts
Catalyst – speeds up the reaction by lowering the activation energy Essential for cellular function Each Enzyme bonds with a specific Substrate for form the Active Site

27 How do enzymes work Speed up reactions – how????
Enzyme bonds to substrate and the enzyme shape changed slightly  The chemical bonds in the substrate are weakened  Lowers the activation energy What happens after the reaction? Enzyme releases the products Enzyme is unchanged… BUT changes in temperature and pH can change the enzyme (denature it) and it may not function properly or at all

28 Nucleic Acids

29 NUCLEIC ACIDS ~ source of the information
Large and complex biological molecules Store and transfer important information in the cell Genetic Code Two types – both are polymers 1. DNA - DeoxyriboNucleic Acid 2. RNA - RiboNucleic Acid DNA is transcribed into RNA, which is translated into PROTEINS

30 NUCLEIC ACIDS ~ structure
Each nucleotide is made of: a phosphate group, a five carbon sugar, and a ring-shaped nitrogen base Nitrogen bases A - Adenine C – Cytosine G – Guanine T – Thymine U - uracil

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