4 Bio 1CarbohydratesOrganic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio.A carbohydrate with 6 carbon atoms would have…______ hydrogen atoms and ______ oxygen atoms126Source of ENERGYStructural components of cells
5 Monosaccharides Monomer of carbohydrate (simple sugar) Most have 6 carbon atomsMost common:1) Glucose (main source of energy)2) Fructose (found in fruits)3) Galactose (found in milk)
6 IsomersGlucose, fructose, and galactose have the same chemical formula.C6H12O6Same formula but different structural forms.
7 Disaccharides and polysaccharides Disaccharide: two monosaccharides bond to form a double sugar.Example: sucrosePolysaccharide: complex molecule composed of three or more monosaccharides.
8 Polysaccharides in animals and plants Bio 1Polysaccharides in animals and plantsGlycogen: animals store glucose in the form of the large, complex molecule – glycogenStarch: plants store glucose molecules in the form of starch.Cellulose: large polysaccharide made by plants, which provide strength and rigidity to plant cells.
10 White vs. whole grainBio 1White bread is a simple carbohydrate (little nutritional value, digested more quickly, converted to fat more quickly)Whole grain bread is a complex carbohydrate (high in fiber, vitamins and minerals, provide more energy, digested slowly)
12 Lipids Large organic molecules Nonpolar – do NOT dissolve in water Bio 1LipidsLarge organic moleculesNonpolar – do NOT dissolve in waterInclude phospholipids, triglycerides, waxes, steroidsHigher ratio of carbon and hydrogen to oxygen than carbohydrates…. More C-H bondsStore more energy per gram than most other organic compoundsButter oil demo
13 Fatty Acids Hydrocarbon End Carboxyl End C-H -COOH Nonpolar Polar Bio 1Fatty AcidsCarboxyl End-COOHPolarHydrophilicHydrocarbon EndC-HNonpolarHydrophobic
14 Bio 1Saturated: Each carbon atom is single-bonded to 4 other atoms; straight chain; molecules are close together; solid at room temperatureUnsaturated: Double bonds in the C chain; kinked chain; molecules are farther apart; liquid at room temperature
15 Types of fatty acids: Saturated vs Unsaturated luRsLet’s list some more differences in the form and function of fatty acids
16 Types of Lipids made of fatty acids Triglycerides (FATS)3 fatty acids molecules joined to 1 glycerolSaturated triglycerides are composed of saturated fatty acids (butter, other dairy products, fat from red meat)Unsaturated triglycerides are composed of unsaturated fatty acids (mostly found oils and in plant seeds)
17 Types of Lipids made of fatty acids PhospholipidsGlycerol is connected to 2 fatty acid molecules and a phosphate group.The plasma membrane of the animal and plant cells are composed of a phospholipid bilayer.
18 Types of Lipids made of fatty acids WaxesComposed of a long fatty acid chain and a long alcohol chain.Waterproof and provide protection.Found on the surface of plants and in the ear canals of many animals (including humans).
19 Steroids NOT composed of fatty acids Four fused carbon rings which are attached to other functional groupsCholesterol (found in the cell and plasma membrane)Hormones such as testosterone and estrogen
22 Proteins ~ What are they? Organic molecules compose of hydrogen, carbon, oxygen and NITROGENMonomers = AMINO ACIDSExamples:HairHornsSkinMusclesENZYMES (to learn more about later!)
23 Amino Acids (AA) 20 different AA Central carbon, C, that is covalently bonded to 4 other groupsHydrogen = blueCarboxyl (-COOH) = greenAmine (-NH2) = yellowR group = red (varies in each AA and determines the AA’s form and functionAA can also be illustrated as a ball
24 DiPeptides and polypeptides Dipeptide: two amino acids bondPolypeptides: long chains of amino acids (made up of 1 or more dipeptide)Making proteins: what builds them?Reaction: condensation or hydrolysisWater is released or used
25 DiPeptides and polypeptides Some proteins are very large, some are small.Protein shape:Influences its function (form and function)Shape can be influenced by factors like temperature and solvent) … for example, egg white is clear when it is uncooked, and white when it is cooked
26 ENZYMES RNA or protein molecules that act as biological catalysts Catalyst – speeds up the reaction by lowering the activation energyEssential for cellular functionEach Enzyme bonds with a specific Substrate for form the Active Site
27 How do enzymes work Speed up reactions – how???? Enzyme bonds to substrate and the enzyme shape changed slightly The chemical bonds in the substrate are weakened Lowers the activation energyWhat happens after the reaction?Enzyme releases the productsEnzyme is unchanged…BUT changes in temperature and pH can change the enzyme (denature it) and it may not function properly or at all
29 NUCLEIC ACIDS ~ source of the information Large and complex biological moleculesStore and transfer important information in the cellGenetic CodeTwo types – both are polymers1. DNA - DeoxyriboNucleic Acid2. RNA - RiboNucleic AcidDNA is transcribed into RNA, which is translated into PROTEINS
30 NUCLEIC ACIDS ~ structure Each nucleotide is made of:a phosphate group,a five carbon sugar, anda ring-shaped nitrogen baseNitrogen basesA - AdenineC – CytosineG – GuanineT – ThymineU - uracil