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Presentation on theme: "Biochemistry."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biochemistry

2 Carbon Compounds Organic compounds - compounds made primarily of carbon atoms Carbon atoms are important because: they have four valence electrons they can bond with other carbon atoms to form straight chains, branched chains, or rings

3 Functional groups - clusters of atoms that influence the characteristics of the molecule

4 Monomers - small, simple molecule
Polymers - molecules that consist of repeated, linked units Macromolecule - large polymers

5 Condensation Reaction
Each time a monomer is added to another monomer or polymer, a water molecule is released Glucose + fructose ---> sucrose + water

6 Hydrolysis Reaction Each time a polymer is broken down into smaller molecules, a water molecule is added Sucrose + water ---> glucose + fructose

7 ATP Adenosine triphosphate - the molecule that cells use to store energy ADP + P + energy ---> ATP ATP ---> ADP + P + energy

8 Molecules of Life Carbohydrates - organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (1:2:1) - used as a source of energy or as structural materials

9 Monomer - monosaccharide (simple sugar)
- glucose (energy for cells), fructose (in fruits; sweetest), galactose (in milk) - are isomers - same formula, different structure

10 Larger carbohydrate molecules
- disaccharide - double sugar (two monomers) - polysaccharide - complex sugar (three or more monomers) - animals store glucose as glycogen - plants store glucose as starch - cellulose (plants) is main component of cell walls

11 Proteins - organic compounds composed of mainly carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
Monomer - amino acids (20) -have functional groups (carboxyl group, amino group, R group)

12 dipeptide - two amino acids bonded together
polypeptide -long chain of amino acids protein - made of one or more polypeptides enzymes - act as catalysts specific relationship to substrate specific as to environment

13 Lipids - large organic compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
- triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids, waxes, and pigments - store more energy per gram than other organic compounds

14 Fatty acids - unbranched carbon chains
- one end is hydrophobic (nonpolar) - one end is hydrophilic (polar) - saturated (each carbon bonded to four atoms; all single bonds) - unsaturated (each carbon not bonded to four atoms; contains a double or triple bond)

15 Triglycerides - three fatty acids joined to glycerol
- saturated - butter and fats in red meat - unsaturated - plant seeds Phospholipids - two fatty acids joined to glycerol - cell membrane

16 Wax - long fatty acid chain joined to long alcohol chain
- form protective layers in plants and animals Steroids - four fused carbon rings with functional groups - hormones, cholesterol

17 Nucleic acids - large and complex organic molecules that store and transfer information in the cell
- DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) - RNA (ribonucleic acid)

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