2 ObjectivesName the three classes of nutrients that supply your body with energyExplain how the body obtains energy from foodsDescribe the roles that carbohydrates, fats and proteins play in your body
3 VocabularyNutrient- A substance in foods that the body needs to regulate bodily functions, promote growth, repair body tissue, and obtain energyMetabolism- The chemical process by which the body breaks down food to release energyCalorie- Unit for the amount of energy released when nutrients are broken downCarbohydrate- A nutrient made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that supplies energy
4 Fiber- A type of complex carbohydrate that is found in plants and is necessary for the proper functioning of the digestive systemFat- A nutrient made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; supplies energy, forms cells, maintains body temperature, and protects nervesUnsaturated fat- A fat with at least one unsaturated bond in a place where hydrogen can be added to the moleculeSaturated fat- A fat that has all the hydrogen the carbon atoms can hold
5 Cholesterol- A waxy, fatlike substance that is found only in animal products Trans fat- The type of fat produced when manufacturers add hydrogen to the fat molecules in vegetable oilsProtein- A nutrient that contains nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen and oxygen; needed for the growth and repair of body tissueAmino acid- small units that are bound together chemically to form proteins
6 Carbohydrates Simple carbohydrates; also known as sugars. Two types:Simple carbohydrates; also known as sugars.Sugars occur naturally in fruits, vegetables and milk.They are added to many foods like cookies, candies and soft drinks.Several types of sugars, but glucose is the most important because it is the major provider of energy for your body’s cells. All other types of sugar are converted to glucose once they are inside your body.
7 Complex carbohydrates Made up of sugars that are linked together chemically to form long chains, something like beads in a necklace.Starches are one of the main types of complex carbs.They are found in many plant foods, including potatoes and grains. Rice, oats, corn and wheat are grains.Tortillas and whole wheat roles are excellent sources of starch.When you eat food containing starch, your digestive system breaks the starch into simple sugars that can be absorbed into your bloodstream.
8 Energy ReservesYou usually eat more carbohydrates then your body can immediately use.This causes extra glucose to be converted into a type of starch called glycogen, which is stored in your body.When your body needs more glucose, the glycogen is converted back into glucose.If you eat so many carbs that your body’s glycogen stores are full, the excess carbs are stored as fat.
9 Fats Fat has twice as many calories as carbohydrates Unsaturated Fats (healthier fats): Liquid at room temperature; these fats are found in vegetable oils, nuts and seeds.Monounsaturated & polyunsaturated fatsCan help fight heart diseaseSaturated Fats (NOT GOOD): Solid at room temperature; animal fats, such as lard, and dairy productsTo much in your diet can lead to heart diseaseTrans Fats (THE WORST): Found in margarine, chips and commercially baked goods.- Manufactures add hydrogen to the fat molecules in vegetable oils to create trans fat
10 ProteinMost important function of proteins is their role in the growth and repair of your body’s tissuesHigh protein foods include meats, eggs, poultry, milk and milk productsNuts, dried beans, dried peas and lentils also contain a lot of protein
11 Name the three classes of nutrients that supply your body with energy Carbohydrates – supply energy for your body’s functionsFats- supply you body with energy, form your cells, maintain body temperature, and protect your nervesProteins- serve as a source of energy. Most important function is their role in the growth and repair of your body’s tissues
12 Explain how the body obtains energy from foods When your body uses the nutrients in foods, a series of chemical reactions occur inside your cells. As a result, energy is released.Metabolism is the chemical process by which your body breaks down food to release this energy. Metabolism also involves the use of this energy for the growth and repair of body tissue.
13 Describe the roles that carbohydrates, fats and proteins play in your body Carbohydrates, fats and proteins can all be used by the body as a source of energy.