Presentation on theme: "Nutrients Substances that Seven Categories: Provide Energy"— Presentation transcript:
1 Nutrients Substances that Seven Categories: Provide Energy Helps with body processesHelps with growth & repair of cellsSeven Categories:FatsProteinsCarbohydratesFiberMineralsVitaminsWaterNutrition is the study of what people eat & of eating habits & how these affect health status.Nutrients are substances in food that provide energy, and help the body function, grow, and repair and maintain itself.
2 Carbohydrates Main source of energy Fiber 1g carbs = 4 calories Simple Carbohydrates: sugars that provide quick energyComplex carbohydrates: starches & fibersFiberPart of grains & plant foods that cannot be digestedHelps move food through digestive systemReduces cholesterol & risk of heart diseaseCarbohydrates are our main source of energy. 1 gram is equal to 4 calories. There are simple and complex carbohydrates.Both simple and complex carbs become glucose after digestionComplex carbs such as fruits and veggies often contain vitamins and minerals.Diabetes is a condition of having little or no insulin produced by the pancreas.Fiber is a carbohydrate that passes through your body undigested. It is mainly cellulose, the part of plants that can’t be digested. It helps keep your digestive system functioning properly and maintains its health.
3 Protein Nutrient needed: 1 g protein = 4 calories For GrowthTo build, repair, and maintain body tissuesTo regulate body processesTo supply energy1 g protein = 4 caloriesAmino acids: building blocks that make up proteins9 of the amino acids are considered essential (body cannot produce)11 are considered nonessential (body can produceComplete protein = contains all essential amino acidsIncomplete protein = is low in 1 or more essential amino acidsProtein makes up important components of muscles, connective tissue, skin, organs, blood, some hormones, antibodies and enzymesAverage adult requirement for protein is considered to be 0.8 grams per kg body weight.Protein contains about 4 calories per gram, and can be used for energy when carbohydrate stores are low.Amino acids are the building blocks of protein, and are provided to the body by the breakdown of dietary protein during digestion.Essential amino acids can only be provided by the diet (FOOD). Nonessential amino acids can be produced by the bodyMany plant proteins are incomplete, but a vegetarian diet can provide the body with all needed amino acids with correct planning.
4 Fats Nutrient that 1 g fat = 9 calories Saturated Found mainly in animalroom temp.Causes liver to produce cholesterolTrans Fat: snack foods & margarineUnsaturated: room temp.Monounsaturated: olive & canola oilsPolyunsaturated: sunflower, corn, canola oils, seafoodNutrient thatsource of stored energyHelps body store & use vitaminsMaintain body heatBuild brain cells & nerve tissue1 g fat = 9 caloriesFat is the main way our body stores energy. It is an efficient means of storage used by plants and animals alike. Fat contains 9 calories per gram. It helps our bodies use vitamins and is a component in nerve tissue.No more than 10% of daily calories should come from saturated fat; and less than 30% from all fatsThere are 2 types. Saturated are solid at room temperature and not as healthy as unsaturated fats.Polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential b/c they are required in the diet & used in the body for cell structure & producing some hormones.
5 Vitamins Nutrient that: Helps the body use carbohydrates, fats, & proteinsFat Soluble Vitamins: dissolves in fat & can be stored in the bodyVitamins A, D, E, Kreleased as the body needs themTaking large doses can be toxicWater Soluble VitaminsDissolves in water & is not stored in the body in significant amountsmust be replenished regularlyExcess excreted from bodyB1 (thiamin), B2, B6, B12, C, niacin, folic acid, riboflavinThere are 13 essential vitamins that have been determined because of their special function & the ways they work with other nutrients…The human body cannot manufacture vitamins, they must be obtained from the foods we eat or from dietary supplements.Fat-soluble vitamins require fat to be dissolved (which is why fat is an important part of the diet). Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the fatty tissues, principally the liver; they are released as your body needs them. Taking a greater amount of vitamins A & D can cause serious toxic effects over a period of time. Fat soluble vitamins include A, D, E, and K.Water-soluble vitamins are dissolved in water. When more is consumed than needed, the excess is eliminated in the urine. This does not enhance performance. While consuming large amounts of water soluble vitamins can be toxic in some cases, it is less likely due to them being excreted daily. Regular consumption of water soluble vitamins is important due to the fact that they are not stored.
6 Minerals Water Nutrient that Nutrient that Macro minerals Sources Regulates chemical reactions in the bodyBuilds tissuesMacro mineralsCalciumPhosphorusPotassiumSodiumMicro mineralsCopperIronzincNutrient thatInvolved in all body processesMakes up the basic part of bloodHelps with waste removalRegulates body temperatureCushions spinal cord & jointsSourcesDrinking waterMoist food (fruits & veggies)Dehydration: when water content of body is very lowDiuretic: product that increases urine outputMinerals such as calcium and phosphorus are important to build bones and teeth. Others are important components of hormones. Certain minerals, called electrolytes (sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride) are needed for muscle contraction, heart rhythm and the conduction of nerve impulses. Copper and iron are important for red blood cell production & function. Hemoglobin is made up mainly of iron. Zinc helps with digestion & wound healingKidneys play an important role in regulating body’s water balanceTo maintain proper hydration adequate water must be taken inSigns of dehydration: dizziness, fatigue, weakness, dry mouth, flushed skin, headache, blurred vision, difficulty swallowing, dry, hot skin; rapid pulse, frequent need to urinateExamples of diuretics, soda, tea, coffee, energy drinks, anything with caffeine, alcohol
7 Vitamins and Their Functions Vitamin A- aids in immune function, bone and teeth formation, promotes growth and repair of body tissuesVitamin D- improves absorption of calcium and phosphorus, maintains nervous systemVitamin E- major antioxidant, nourishes cells, prevents blood clotsVitamin K- prevents internal bleedingVitamin B- promote growth and muscle tone, aids in digesting carbs, maintain nervous system and vision, maintain red and white blood cells, aids in metabolizing proteins, promote healthy skinVitamin C- antioxidant, maintains oral health, helps heal wounds, helps prevent infection, prevents scurvyFolic Acid- promotes growth and reproduction of cells, aids in formation of red blood cells and bone marrow, prevents neural tube birth defectsHere is a more detailed look at the functions of various vitamins. Vitamin A is important in immune function, bone and teeth formation, and repairing tissues. Vitamin D improves the absorption of calcium and phosphorus. Vitamin E is an antioxidant and prevents blood clots. Vitamin K prevents internal bleeding. Vitamin B promotes growth and muscle tone, it aids in the digestion of carbohydrate and is important of a host of other bodily processes. Vitamin C is an antioxidant that is important for oral health and aids in wound healing. Folic Acid is one of the B vitamins that is very important in preventing birth defects.
8 Minerals and Their Functions Macro mineralsSodium- controls volume of fluid in body, maintains pH, essential for nerve and muscle functionPotassium- essential for nerve and muscle functionPhosphorus- makes up bone, forms compounds for energy like ATPCalcium- makes up bones and teeth, essential for nerve function, muscle function and blood clottingIron- essential for oxygen transfer (hemoglobin)Magnesium- essential for bones, function of nerves and muscles, needed for many enzymesThe functions of minerals are complex as well. Macro minerals are called that because they are needed in greater amounts than the other group of minerals known as micro minerals. Sodium, which is a component of salt, like that in the background picture, controls the volume of fluid in the body. This is why it affects blood pressure so much. It also maintains the necessary pH for proper nerve and muscle function. Potassium is another mineral that is important in nerve and muscle function. Phosphorus makes up bone and energy compounds. Calcium makes up bones as well as teeth. It is essential for proper nerve function and aids in blood clotting. Iron is needed to carry oxygen in the blood. Magnesium is essential for bones and nerve and muscle function. Many enzymes contain it.
9 Micro minerals Chromium- Involved in skeletal muscle function. Copper- Contained in enzymes and red blood cellsZinc- needed in enzymes, strengthens immune systemSelenium- antioxidant, strengthens immune system, in many enzymesMicro minerals, which are needed in lesser amounts than macro minerals, include Chromium, Copper, Zinc, and Selenium. Chromium is involved in muscle function. Copper is in enzymes and needed in red blood cells. Zinc, another important component of enzymes, strengthens the immune system. Selenium is an antioxidant and is also important in immune function and enzymes.
10 Sources of VitaminsVitamin A- liver, eggs, dark green and yellow vegetablesB vitamins- lean meats, fish, poultry, whole grains, potatoes, bananas, lentils, chili peppers, and molassesVitamin C- citrus, tomatoes, red and green peppers, and berriesVitamin E- oils, nuts, beans, whole grains, and leafy greensVitamin D- sunlight (body makes it), milk (fortified with it)Vitamin K- leafy greens, broccoliFolic Acid- leafy greens, poultry, dried beans, and orangesThere are many sources of vitamins. If one gets a balanced diet, they really don’t need supplements. A great source of Vitamin A is liver. Other sources include eggs, leafy greens, and yellow vegetables. B vitamins are found in meat, fish and poultry as well as grains, potatoes, bananas, lentils, peppers and molasses. Vitamin C is mainly found in citrus, tomatoes, peppers, and berries. Vitamin E is present in oils, nuts, beans, grains, and leafy greens. Vitamin D can be produced in the skin by exposure to sunlight. It is also in fortified milk. Vitamin K is in leafy greens and broccoli. Leafy greens are also a good source of folic acid. Other sources of folic acid include dried beans and oranges.
11 Sources of Minerals Calcium- milk, cheese, and produce Iron- eggs, leafy greens, liver, meat, and nutsPhosphorus- dairy, fruits, meats, and vegetablesMagnesium- eggs, fish, nuts, milk, and leafy greensSodium- table salt, processed foodsPotassium- Cereal, coffee, fruit, meat, and whole grainsCopper- liver, raisins, peas, cocoaZinc- eggs, liver, red meat, seafood, and whole grainsSelenium- eggs, garlic, seafood, whole grainsChromium- Cheese, fruit, meat, and nutsAs you can see many meat and dairy products are good mineral sources. Other mineral sources include salt, fruits and vegetables.
12 Sources http://www.healthline.com/hlbook/nut-vitamins Images: MS Clipart