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Home is where the heart is…. Nutrition Chapter 7.

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Presentation on theme: "Home is where the heart is…. Nutrition Chapter 7."— Presentation transcript:

1 Home is where the heart is…

2 Nutrition Chapter 7

3 Nutrition – the science of food and the ways in which a body uses food. Nutrients – substances in food that provide energy or help form body tissues. They are necessary for life and growth.

4 6 Essential Nutrients Carbohydrates Fats Proteins Vitamins Minerals Water

5 Which 3 of the 6 essential nutrients provide us with calories (energy)? FATS PROTEINS CARBOHYDRATES

6 So what is a calorie? A unit of measurement for energy Carbs – 4 cal/gram Protein – 4 cal/gram FATS - 9 cal/gram

7 Carbohydrates – simple and complex Simple sugars do not need to be broken down in the metabolic process Complex carbohydrates are 3 or more sugars attached to form long chain molecules. They need to be broken down and take time to digest and be used as energy.

8 Simple or Complex Carbs?


10 So which type of carbohydrates are we able to use faster and easier after eating them? Simple or Complex?

11 Carbohydrates should make up about 60% of our daily calories. They are a major source of energy and also help repair tissues.

12 Dietary fiber – it is a complex carbohydrate but it is not digested. It is made up of the parts of plants we cannot digest. Fiber helps speed up food moving through the digestive tract. It prevents constipation and makes a person feel full High fiber diets also help prevent colon cancer Fiber is found in foods like fruits, vegetables, grains and beans

13 Fat provides the most energy per gram (9 cal) Reasons we need fat in our diets: Stores energy Pad and protect organs Insulate body from cold Important ingredient in several hormones Necessary for storage and transport of certain vitamins throughout the body

14 Saturated vs. unsaturated fat: which of these do we want to avoid? Saturated fat is solid at room temperature except for coconut oil and palm oil. It clogs arteries with plaque formation and contributes to heart disease. It is animal fat, milk fat and some oil fats

15 Unsaturated fat is liquid at room temperature and is from plant sources like veg. oil, corn oil, peanut oil. It is cholesterol free. So what are “trans fats” ????

16 Hydrogenated oils (trans fats) are vegetable oils that have been altered to make them more useful in commercial food processing – they are solid oils They are found in margarine, chips, cookies, and other snack foods.

17 Hydrogenated oils can raise blood cholesterol levels as much as saturated fats Cholesterol – A fat-like substance in some foods of animal origin. It is produced by the liver and other organs. Our bodies make all the cholesterol we need. HDL and LDL (good chol. and bad chol.)

18 High-density lipoprotein (HDL) Good cholesterol, carries cholesterol from blood stream to the liver, where it is broken down to be used or removed from the body. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) Bad-cholesterol – carries chol. And other fats from the digestive system through blood to the body’s cells. Excess cholesterol builds up on the walls of blood vessels – clogged arteries result.

19 What common cause of death may result from clogged arteries?

20 Proteins – made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, but also contain nitrogen. Necessary for growth and repair of body tissues. Made of amino acids. There are 20 total amino acids, 11 can be made in the body, 9 others must be supplied by food: called essential amino acids

21 Complete proteins – contain all 9 essential amino acids Incomplete proteins – contain only some of the 9 essential amino acids Meat, poultry, fish and milk products – complete proteins

22 Vitamins – compounds that help regulate certain chemical reactions in the body. Only vitamins the body makes are D and K. Fat soluble (dissolves in fat) – A,D,E and K – can be stored in fat. Water soluble – cannot be stored in the body, must be taken regularly in diet or by supplement. Any excess is excreted in urine.

23 Minerals – naturally occurring substances that contribute to the normal functioning of the body. Helps to build structural components of the body. Macro and trace minerals Macro- calcium, chlorine, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and sulfur Sodium is an electrolyte (electronically charged particle) Trace mineral – iron, can be supplemented

24 Water – 60-70% water Dehydration – when the amount of water excreted exceeds the amount of water taken in. How is water excreted? Effects of caffeine? Alcohol? Vomiting? Diarrhea? Water loss through perspiration helps cool the body. One sign of heat exhaustion is dry, hot skin. Body temperature begins to rise because the body cannot cool itself.

25 The RDA (recommended dietary allowances) Carbohydrates 50% or more Proteins 15% or more Fats 30% or LESS These are daily percentage ranges

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