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Published byMyrtle Ryan Modified over 7 years ago
Nutrient: Substance the body needs to regulate bodily functions, promote growth, repair body tissues, and obtain energy
Macronutrients and Micronutrients
What is a macronutrient?
Nutrients that can be used by the body as a fuel source Carbohydrates Fats Proteins Water
Carbs Function: There are two types of carbs: Simple Carbohydrates
Carbs are the chief source of energy There are two types of carbs: Simple Carbohydrates Complex Carbohydrates
Types of Carbs Simple Carbs Complex Carbs Sugars Burn Quickly
Found naturally in foods and in processed foods End in “ose” Fructose Glucose Sucrose Complex Carbs Starches Burns more slowly Body breaks it down into sugars Simple carbs give quick bursts of energy, while complex give long-tem, sustained energy Found in: Potatoes Beans Whole-grain cereals
More Carbs Excess carbs Glycogen (stored sugar)
Unused glycogen Fat 45-65% of a person’s daily calorie intake come from carbs. There are 4 calories per gram of carbohydrates
Fats Functions: Supplies you blood with energy, forms your cells, maintain body temperature, and protects your nerves This is your main energy source when your body is at rest 9 calories per gram of fat 20-35% of your calories should come from fat Three types of fat: -Saturated Fat Unsaturated fat Transfat
Unsaturated Fat Best fat for you!!!! Can help fight heart disease
Usually liquid at room temperature Found in plant sources Types of unsaturated fats: Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Fish oils- omega 3 fatty acids (most unsaturated of all)
Saturated Fat Usually solid at room temperature
Found in animal sources Also found in soybeans Too much saturated fat in diet can lead to heart disease
Trans Fat Trans fats- fats that are made when manufacturers add hydrogen to the fat molecules in vegetable oils They stay fresh longer (seems to be only benefit) They are the worst type of fat You know a product has trans fat, when in the ingredients it says partially hydrogenated
Cholesterol Cholesterol- a waxy, fatlike substance that is found only in animal products Your body does need a certain amount of cholesterol Body makes cholesterol, so it does not need to be included in diet Too much cholesterol in your diet can cause plaque to build up and may block blood flow to the heart. Consists of HDL and LDL HDL- “Happy/Healthy Cholesterol”- High Density Lipoprotein LDL- “Lousy Cholesterol”- Low Density Lipoprotein
Proteins Function: 10-35% of your calories should come from proteins
Play role in the growth and repair of your body’s tissues 10-35% of your calories should come from proteins 4 calories per gram of protein Proteins are made up of chains of amino acids Body is made up of 20 amino acids Your diet has to supply 9 of these amino acids (essential amino acids) Your body can manufacture the rest
Complete vs. Incomplete Proteins
Complete protein- proteins that come from an animal source (meats, fish) They contain all nine essential amino acids in proportions needed by the body Incomplete protein- most proteins that come from plant sources (beans) They lack one or more essential amino acids Vegetarians can get all of their amino acids by combining two or more plant protein sources (ex. Rice and beans)
Water Essential for EVERY body function!!!!
Dissolves and transports substances Accounts for blood volume Helps maintain body temperature Maintains proper fluid balance Aids in the excretion of waste Most of our body weight is water (65%)
Water Continued Water is important in maintaining homeostasis
Homeostasis is the process of maintaining a steady state inside your body Example: when you become overheated, you body makes you sweat to cool you off Dehydration can occur from perspiring too much A serious reduction in the body’s water content Symptoms include weakness, rapid breathing, and a weak heartbeat
How much water do you drink?
KNOW: that it is different from person to person Drink enough water to make your urine a light yellow color This can be in the form of food that contains water too Drinks that contain caffeine (coffee, tea, and soda) may not be a good source of water
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