Urban – having something to do with cities. People make a living in ways other than farming. Urban areas grouped by: - population or - economic activities Kinds of Urban Areas Suburbs – areas around a city – large central city Metropolitan Area – land of a central city and all of its suburbs. Megalopolis: chain of closely linked metropolitan areas “great city” “Boswash” Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington DC Primate City: leading city in its country or region
Manufacturing Government – national, state, provincial capitals. Transportation Trade/office – generally will be located in a central area. Other functions: - recreation ctrs - educational ctrs - religious ctrs History of Cities Started about 6,000 years ago. First cities: - Mesopotamia (SW Asia) Urban Functions (Eco. Activities)
Specialization started to develop: - artisans- merchants - farmers- ruling elite (military or religious leaders) along the Tigris/Euphrates Rivers - 4,000 BCE Running the cities – (usually the ruling elite) - wrote the laws - levied taxes - supervised public building Earliest Great City Rome – ctr of Roman Empire - built all over Europe - roads still used today Sketch a map
- developed the grid system to lay out their cities (later spread all over Europe) - brought water from the mountains by aqueducts Fall of the Roman Empire - invasion of Germanic tribes
Middle Ages Villages and cities started to increase again after the Dark Ages Trade between the villages would develop into large cities. Two of the largest cities would be Paris and London. Industrial Revolution Next large growth of cites – started in Europe and would spread to N. America in the late 1700s. Immigration & 2 nd Agricultural Revolution Helped spread urbanization in the 20 th c. Rural to Urban Migration Dramatically increased the size of cities in North America. Urban Environment Shaped by human activities - cities have to deal with problems and increasing population
Urban Landscape Site and situation -influence whether people will settle in certain area - 2 factors influence this: Exact location Site -actual physical features (landforms, waterways, climate, etc.) Relative location Situation -position of a place in relation to all places around it.
A city’s good situation guarantees its influence over the area A city business district ( CBD ) has areas around it that supply it with raw materials and farm products – called the HINTERLAND. The hinterland gets its manufactured products and services from the city. Impact of Urban Development People change the natural landscape to build the city.- animal/plant habitats are destroyed - arable land being used for development Hinterland CBD Burgess Model
Urban Climate urban areas are warmer than rural areas. Cities are “URBAN HEAT ISLANDS” (can be up to 3 º warmer) Buildings change wind patterns.
Urban Life Common urban problems - unemployment - Housing - Sanitation - Transportation - Water - Crime - Fire - racial/religious conflict - environmental pollution - decline of the Central Business District - gentrification: the restoration of run-down urban areas by the middle class (resulting in the displacement of low-income residents). When Urbanization occurs quickly more problems occur Reasons for urbanization Economics: More job opportunities and higher wages
World Patterns of Urban Development 48% of the world’s people live in urban areas. Developed countries – 75% Developing countries – 35% live in cities Last 20 years in developing countries - rapid population growth. By 2025 – 60% of the world’s population will live in cities. All but one of the largest cities in the world will be in developing countries.
Cities grow because of immigration of people Migration: the movement of people from place to place Immigrant: A person who comes to live permanently in a foreign country. Emigrant: A person who leaves their own country to settle permanently in another Refugee: A person who has been forced to leave their country in order to escape war, persecution, or natural disaster. Internally Displaced Person: someone who is forced to flee their home but who, unlike a refugee, remains within their country's borders
Push/Pull Factors Migration happens because of push/pull factors Push factors: factors that make people leave their country (pushes them out) –Example: lack of jobs, political instability, civil war, famine/droughts Pull factors: factors that draw people to another country (pulls them in) –Examples: Job opportunity, political freedom, religious freedom, better climate,….