Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4: People and Places"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 4: People and Places population, urban, political, economy, culture
2 4.2 Population GeographyHow does population affect a city, country, etc.?
3 Group Work Group 1: Birth and Death Rates Group 2: Population Pyramid Group 3: Population DistributionGroup 4: Population DensityRead your groups section in the book. Become an expert and be ready to discuss your section with the class. If your information is data drive, how do you read the graphs or charts in your section?Atlas work
6 4.4 Urban GeographyUrbanization: the dramatic rise in the number of cities and the changes in lifestyle that result.What does a city look like, what are the layers? Think about Kansas City.
7 4.3 Political Geography Basic Political Terms State: an independent unit that occupies a specific territory and has full control of its internal and external affairs. (Country means state as well)Nation: refers to a group of people with a common culture living in a territory and having a strong sense of unity.Nation-state: When a nation and a state occupy the same territoryStateless- nation: some nations do not have a territory, i.e. Kurds and Palestinians. (where are these nations located?)
8 Forms of GovernmentDemocracy: citizens hold political power, either directly or through elected representatives.Monarchy: a ruling family headed by a king or queen hold political power and may or may not share the power with citizens bodies.Dictatorship: an individual or group holds complete political power.Communism: in this government and economic system, nearly all political power and means of production are held by the government in the name of all the people
9 Geographic Characteristics of Nations Three geographic characteristics are very important in describing a country.SizeShapeRelative Location- is very important…what countries are you next to, do you have good relations with those countries, resourcesLandlocked country: one surrounded by other land and with no direct outlet to the sea.
10 National BoundariesBoundaries or borders set the limits of the territory controlled by a state, within its borders; the state can do such things as collect taxes, set up a legal code, and declare an official language. A state may claim all of the resources found within its boundariesNatural boundaries- based on physical features. What are problems with natural boundaries?Artificial boundaries- a fixed line generally following latitude and longitude lines.
11 Regional Political Systems What regional political systems are seen in the United States or in our own state?
12 Example of Boundary and Regional Conflict: Iraq
13 4.5 Economic GeographyEconomy: consists of the production and exchange of goods and services among a group of people.4 Basic Economic Systems:Traditional economy: goods and services are traded without exchanging money. “barter”Command economy: production of goods and services is determined by a central government.Market economy: production of goods and services is determined by the demand from consumers. “capitalism”Mixed economy: a combination of command and market economies provides goods and services so that all people will benefit.
14 4.1 The Elements of Culture Culture: is the total of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors shared by and passed on by the members of a specific group.It includes products of human work and thought.Culture involves the following factors:Food and shelterReligionRelationships to family and othersLanguageEducationSecurity/ protectionPolitical and social organizationsCreative expression
15 Society: A group that shares a geographic region, a sense of identity, and culture. Ethnic group: to refer to a group that shares a language, customs, and a common heritage. An ethnic group has an identity as a separate group of people within the region where they live.
16 Culture and societies are always in the process of changing. Innovation- taking existing technology and resources and creating something new to meet a needDiffusion- spread of ideas, inventions, or patterns of behavior.Cultural hearth- is a site of innovation from which basic ideas, materials, and technology diffuse to many cultures.Exposure to an innovation does not guarantee that a society will accept that innovation. Individuals and societies must decide whether the innovation is useful and consistent with its basic principles.Acculturation- occurs when a society changes b/c it accepts or adopts an innovation.
17 LanguageLanguage is one of the most important aspects of culture because it allows the people within a culture to communicate with each other.Geographers estimate that between 3,000 and 6,500 languages are spoken across the world today.These languages are put into language families. (Indo-European)Versions of a language are called dialects.A dialect reflects changes in speech patterns related to class, region, or other cultural changes.Give examples of dialects in the United StatesWhat is Language Diffusion?How can Language be diffused?
18 ReligionReligion: consists of a belief in a supernatural power or powers that are regarded as the creators and maintainers of the universe. Religions establish beliefs and values that define how people worship the divine being or divine forces and how they behave towards each other.MonotheisticPolytheisticAnimistic/TraditionalWhat are the Five Major Religions in the World?