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Chapter 4: People and Places

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1 Chapter 4: People and Places
population, urban, political, economy, culture

2 4.2 Population Geography How does population affect a city, country, etc.?

3 Group Work Group 1: Birth and Death Rates Group 2: Population Pyramid
Group 3: Population Distribution Group 4: Population Density Read your groups section in the book. Become an expert and be ready to discuss your section with the class. If your information is data drive, how do you read the graphs or charts in your section? Atlas work

4 Population Pyramid

5 Population Density Map

6 4.4 Urban Geography Urbanization: the dramatic rise in the number of cities and the changes in lifestyle that result. What does a city look like, what are the layers? Think about Kansas City.

7 4.3 Political Geography Basic Political Terms
State: an independent unit that occupies a specific territory and has full control of its internal and external affairs. (Country means state as well) Nation: refers to a group of people with a common culture living in a territory and having a strong sense of unity. Nation-state: When a nation and a state occupy the same territory Stateless- nation: some nations do not have a territory, i.e. Kurds and Palestinians. (where are these nations located?)

8 Forms of Government Democracy: citizens hold political power, either directly or through elected representatives. Monarchy: a ruling family headed by a king or queen hold political power and may or may not share the power with citizens bodies. Dictatorship: an individual or group holds complete political power. Communism: in this government and economic system, nearly all political power and means of production are held by the government in the name of all the people

9 Geographic Characteristics of Nations
Three geographic characteristics are very important in describing a country. Size Shape Relative Location- is very important…what countries are you next to, do you have good relations with those countries, resources Landlocked country: one surrounded by other land and with no direct outlet to the sea.

10 National Boundaries Boundaries or borders set the limits of the territory controlled by a state, within its borders; the state can do such things as collect taxes, set up a legal code, and declare an official language. A state may claim all of the resources found within its boundaries Natural boundaries- based on physical features. What are problems with natural boundaries? Artificial boundaries- a fixed line generally following latitude and longitude lines.

11 Regional Political Systems
What regional political systems are seen in the United States or in our own state?

12 Example of Boundary and Regional Conflict: Iraq

13 4.5 Economic Geography Economy: consists of the production and exchange of goods and services among a group of people. 4 Basic Economic Systems: Traditional economy: goods and services are traded without exchanging money. “barter” Command economy: production of goods and services is determined by a central government. Market economy: production of goods and services is determined by the demand from consumers. “capitalism” Mixed economy: a combination of command and market economies provides goods and services so that all people will benefit.

14 4.1 The Elements of Culture
Culture: is the total of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors shared by and passed on by the members of a specific group. It includes products of human work and thought. Culture involves the following factors: Food and shelter Religion Relationships to family and others Language Education Security/ protection Political and social organizations Creative expression

15 Society: A group that shares a geographic region, a sense of identity, and culture.
Ethnic group: to refer to a group that shares a language, customs, and a common heritage. An ethnic group has an identity as a separate group of people within the region where they live.

16 Culture and societies are always in the process of changing.
Innovation- taking existing technology and resources and creating something new to meet a need Diffusion- spread of ideas, inventions, or patterns of behavior. Cultural hearth- is a site of innovation from which basic ideas, materials, and technology diffuse to many cultures. Exposure to an innovation does not guarantee that a society will accept that innovation. Individuals and societies must decide whether the innovation is useful and consistent with its basic principles. Acculturation- occurs when a society changes b/c it accepts or adopts an innovation.

17 Language Language is one of the most important aspects of culture because it allows the people within a culture to communicate with each other. Geographers estimate that between 3,000 and 6,500 languages are spoken across the world today. These languages are put into language families. (Indo-European) Versions of a language are called dialects. A dialect reflects changes in speech patterns related to class, region, or other cultural changes. Give examples of dialects in the United States What is Language Diffusion? How can Language be diffused?

18 Religion Religion: consists of a belief in a supernatural power or powers that are regarded as the creators and maintainers of the universe. Religions establish beliefs and values that define how people worship the divine being or divine forces and how they behave towards each other. Monotheistic Polytheistic Animistic/Traditional What are the Five Major Religions in the World?

19 Assignment What is your Culture?

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