Presentation on theme: "Brahe/Compton Global Studies Chapter 4, Section 3."— Presentation transcript:
Brahe/Compton Global Studies Chapter 4, Section 3
Discuss the types and units of government Identify the geographic characteristics of nations Compare natural and artificial boundaries Review the development of regional political systems
I. Nations of the World A. Governmental units 1. State: independent unit that occupies a specific territory and has full control of its internal and external affairs (country) 2. Nation: a group of people with a common culture living in a territory and having a strong sense of unity 3. Nation-state: occurs when a nation and state occupy the same territory 4. Is possible to have a nation and no territory = Palestinians, Kurds… (see map )
B. Types of Government 1. Democracy: citizens hold power either directly or through elected representatives. (US) 2. Monarchy: ruling family headed by a king/queen – may/may not share power with citizen bodies (UK or Saudi Arabia) 3. Dictatorship: individual or group holds complete political power (North Korea, Afghanistan) 4. Communism: (economic system too) political power and means of production are held by the government in the name of all the people
II. Geographic Characteristics of Nations A. Size 1. Sometimes large size = large wealth and power but not always 2. Example: England of the UK B. Shape 1. Fragmented like Japan (islands) 2. Compact like Germany or long like Chile 3. Can make it easy/harder to be governed C. Location 1. Landlocked: surrounded by land with not direct outlet to sea = issues over transportation of goods (Ex: Bolivia) 2. Compare to Singapore – tiny but is a major port because it is on a coast 3. Surrounded by hostile neighbors? Issues with protection and security!
III. National Boundaries A. Natural Boundaries 1. Based on physical features of the land 2. Such as rivers, lake, or chains of mountains 3. Ex = Rio Grande River – border of Mexico and part of US (Texas) B. Artificial Boundaries 1. Fixed line generally following latitude or longitude lines 2. Ex = 49˚N latitude separates US from Canada 3. Issues: colonial powers in Africa established boundaries without reference to traditional lands of the African people… led to civil war!
IV. Regional Political Systems A. Countries divided - counties, provinces, and states B. Even smaller regional divisions: cities, towns, villages, school districts… deal with local issues, leave the big decisions to larger groups C. Countries can join together to form international political, military or economic units (like European Union, United Nations…)
Government: The institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policies. Public Policy: All of the many goals that a government pursues in all of the many areas of human affairs in which it is involved. Constitution: The body of fundamental laws setting out the principles, structures, and processes of a government. (Highest Law in the Land!) Socialism: A philosophy (and economic system) based on the idea that the benefits of economic activity should be fairly distributed.