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Chapter 4 Sections 2-5 Human Geography.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Sections 2-5 Human Geography."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4 Sections 2-5 Human Geography

2 Demographics Birthrate Number of live births per thousand population
What counts as a live birth?

3 Demographics Fertility Rate
The average number of children a child-bearing woman would have in her lifetime at the current rate for her country A fertility rate of 2.1 is necessary for replacement population South Korea is 1.24

4 Demographics Mortality Rate The number of deaths per thousand people

5 Demographics Infant Mortality Rate
Number of deaths of infants under age one per thousand live births Often used to measure health and well-being of a nation In US, black rate is twice that of whites Why does US rank at #32 in the world?

6 Demographics Rate of Natural Increase
Rate at which a population is growing Birthrate minus death rate = rate of natural increase

7 Demographics Population Pyramid
Graph that shows the age and sex distribution of a population

8 Demographics Demographic Transition
Populations change as countries go from pre-industrial to industrialized economies When countries are fully industrialized, populations shrink

9 Population Distribution
Habitable Lands 2/3 of world’s population lives between 20’ North and 60’ North latitude Urban-Rural Mix More than half of world’s population lives in rural areas but cities growing

10 Population Distribution
Migration Movement of population from one location to another Push Factor Pull Factor

11 Population Distribution
Population Density Average number of people who live in a measurable area (square mile) Carry Capacity The number of organisms a piece of land can support


13 Political Geography State – an independent unit that occupies a specific territory and has full control over its internal and external affairs (often called a country)

14 Political Geography Types of Government
Democracy – citizens hold political power directly or through elected representatives Monarchy – Rule by a king or queen who may or may not share power (limited or constitutional monarchy)

15 Political Geography Dictatorship – an individual or group holds complete political power Communism – a government and economic system where nearly all power and means of production are held by the government in the name of the people

16 Geographic Characteristics
Size – does not always determine power Shape Compact Elongated Fragmented Protruded Perforated Location, location, location! Landlocked versus access to sea

17 Geographic Characteristics
Boundaries Natural – a boundary based on a physical feature such as rivers or mountain chains Artificial – a line based on a latitude or longitude line Sometimes artificial boundaries divide groups of people

18 Urban Geography Cities – centers of business and culture
Suburbs – political units touching the borders of the central city Exurbs – smaller cities/towns with open land between them and large cities

19 Urban Geography Metropolitan Area – a functional area formed by a city, its suburbs, and exurbs Megalopolis – formed when several metropolitan areas grow together

20 Urban Geography Urbanization – the dramatic rise in the number of cities and the changes in lifestyle that result Why do cities grow where they do?

21 Urban Geography Land Use Patterns (aka Zoning)
Residential - includes single-family homes and apartment buildings Industrial – areas reserved for manufacturing goods Commercial – used for private businesses and the buying/selling of retail products

22 Urban Geography Central Business District (CBD) Core of the city
Contains businesses, stores, and sometimes high-end housing Land is very expensive causing high buildings

23 Economic Geography Economy
The production and exchange of goods and services among a group of people Economies operate on a local, regional, national, or international level

24 Economic Geography Economic Systems
Traditional Economy – goods and services are traded w/out exchanging money (barter) Command Economy – production of goods and services is determined by a central government which usually owns the means of production. Production does not necessarily reflect consumer demand. Aka a planned economy


26 Economic Geography Market Economy – production of goods and services is determined by the demand of consumers. Aka a demand economy or capitalism Mixed Economy – a combination of command and market economies provides goods and services so that all people will benefit

27 Economic Geography Levels of Economic Activity
Primary – gathering raw materials for immediate use or use in the making of a final product Secondary – adding value to materials by changing their form such as manufacturing cars

28 Economic Geography Tertiary – providing business or professional services such as salespeople, teachers, doctors, etc Quaternary – information, management, and research services by highly-trained individuals

29 Economic Geography Natural Resources
Renewable – can be replaced through natural processes (trees, etc) Non-Renewable – cannot be replaced once they have been removed from ground (metals, oil, etc) Inexhaustible – used for producing power; result of solar/planetary processes

30 Economic Geography Infrastructure – basic support systems needed to keep an economy going including power, communications, transportation, water, sanitation, and education systems

31 Economic Geography Measuring Economic Development
Per Capita Income – average amount of money earned by each person Gross National Product (GNP) – total value of all goods and services produced by a country Gross Domestic Product (GDP) – …produced within a country


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