2 4.1 Elements of Culture Culture: The total of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors shared by and passed on by members of specific groupCan involve:Religion, food, education, language, relationships, etc.
3 SocietyA group that shares a geographic region, a sense of identity, and cultureCubans
4 Ethnic Groupa specific group that shares a language, customs, and heritage.
5 Culture Change and Exchange 3 Types:InnovationDiffusionAcculturation
6 InnovationTaking existing technology and resources and creating something new to meet a need.
7 Diffusion Spread of new ideas Resources like the television and internet help to spread new ideasCultural hearth- where it all begin; the site of innovation
8 AcculturationOccurs when a society changes because it accepts or adopts an innovation.
9 Language Allows people to communicate Helps establish cultural identity.Dialect: differ. Version of speechie.: southern drawlLanguage can be spread through trade and migration
10 Religion Monotheistic: one god Polytheistic: more than one Animistic: divine forces are within natureSpread through diffusion and converts
11 Major Religions Judaism Christianity Holy book is known as Torah. Centered in IsraelChristianityEvolved from JudaismBased on teachings of JesusHoly book is Bible
12 Islam Hinduism Buddhism Based on teachings of the prophet Muhammad Holy book is the Qur’anHinduismPolytheisticBased on a caste systemBuddhismDerives from HinduismGoal is to reach an enlightened state known as “Nirvana”
17 Migration Movement of people from one place to another Push-pull factors:push: cause people to leave their homelandpull: what attracts people to another location
18 Population Density Avg. # of people who live in a measurable area Carrying capacity: the ability of an areas land to support the inhabitants.
19 Ch. 4.3 “Political Geography” Nation:people with common culture living in a territoryState :Independent unit that occupies a specific territory and has control of internal/external affairsNation-state:nation and state occupy same territory
20 Types of Government Democracy: Citizens hold political power, either directly or through elected reps.
21 MonarchyRuling family, headed by a king or queen holds power. May or may not share power with citizen bodies.
22 DictatorshipIndividual or group holds complete political power.
23 CommunismGovt. and econ. system where all political power and means of production are held by the govt. in the name of the people
24 Geographic Characteristics SizeMore potential for resources and population baseShapeImpacts how goods are moved and how easily it can be governed
25 LocationLandlocked: land w/ no direct outlet to waterBolivia
26 National Boundaries Natural Boundaries Artificial Boundaries Rivers, lakes, or mountainsArtificial BoundariesFixed line generally following lat. or long.
27 Regional Political Systems Countries are often divided into smaller systems to make govt. more efficient.Towns, cities, villages are examples
28 Ch. 4.4 “Urban Geography” Cities: Suburbs: Metropolitan Area: Centers of business & cultureLarge populationsSuburbs:Political units that touch the borders of the central cityie: RedlandsMetropolitan Area:Cities, suburbs, linked together to form
29 UrbanizationRise in the number of cities and the changes in lifestyle
30 City locations Cities grow around lakes, rivers or coastal areas Areas with good natural resourcesEconomic growth because of locationEx.: Pittsburgh, PA located around iron and coal mines
31 Land Use Residential: homes and apts. Industrial : manufacturing Commercial: private businesses
32 Central Business District (CBD) Core of the city, almost always based on commercial activityLand is very expensive
33 Ch. 4.5 “Economic Geography” Economy:Consists of the production and exchange of goods and services among a groupEconomic System:the way people produce and exchange goods and services
34 Types of Economic Systems Traditional econ.: no exchange of moneyCommand Econ:Production is determined by a central govt.Market Econ:Production is determined by demand from consumersMixed Econ:combination of command and market econ’s for the benefit of all
35 Economic Levels Primary: Secondary Gather raw materials, derived from resourcesSecondaryTurn raw materials into goods
36 Tertiary: Quaternary: Add business and professional services Activities by highly-trained persons
37 Natural Resources Renewable: Non-renewable: Inexhaustible: Resources can be replaced through a natural processNon-renewable:Resources that can not be replaced once they have been removedInexhaustible:as a result of the planetary or solar process
38 Economic Support System Infrastructure:Basic support system that keeps an economy goingThe more sophisticated the more developed the country is
39 Measuring Econ. Development GNP Gross National Product:Total value of all goods and servicesGDP Gross Domestic Product:Total value of all goods and services within a country