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Sex and Gender Chapter 8.

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Presentation on theme: "Sex and Gender Chapter 8."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sex and Gender Chapter 8

2 Sex vs. Gender Gender Stratification-unequal access to power, prestige and property based on gender differences Sex is biological (male/female) Gender – behavior, attitudes proper for males and females Inherit sex, learn gender Gender is social Gender is a master status Gender is a device by which society controls its members

3 Dominant Position in Sociology
Social factors not biology reasons we behave the way we do Difference in gender behavior is due to social factors Type of work men and women do is determined by social arrangement Nature vs. Nurture- nature provides biological predispositions overlaid with culture (Medical accidents, Vietnam veterans study)

4 Inequality in a Global Perspective
Hunter- gatherer societies men and women social equals- changed over time Females as a minority group Gender primary division Women- dominant in number- are discriminated against on the basis of physical characteristics Society sets up barriers to ensure unequal access on the basis of sex Patriarchy was a social consequence of reproduction, women did not receive as much prestige for their work

5 Origins of Patriarchy Patriarchal (male dominated society) theories point to social consequences of human reproduction Women stayed at home to raise children, men went out into the world, took dominant position in society. Males dominated society men dominate political behavior, are wiling to sacrifice to attain dominance Women- second class citizens Men viewed as superior

6 Patriarchy Certain activities appropriate for men and not women
Sex Typing- activities associated with one sex or another (male and female jobs) George Murdock study 1937 found different cultures assign different work to men or women (exception metalworking/ male) Conclusion- biology does not require men or women to be assigned different work

7 Gender and Prestige of Work
Universally greater prestige is given to male activities- regardless of what they are

8 Areas of Global Discrimination
Education- women lower rates of literacy Politics- lack equal access to national decision making Gap in Pay- average less pay than men Politics- No national legislature has more women than men in office Violence against Women- foot binding, witch burning, suttee, female circumcision, domestic violence Institutions in society work together to maintain inequality. Customs justify and maintain arrangements

9 Rise of Feminism 100 years ago in U.S. women second class (voting, property, could not make legal contracts Feminism- men and women should be politically, economically and socially equal

10 Women’s Movement Three waves
First- early 1900’s, reform society, give women the right to vote Second- 1960’s, women began to take careers, compare working conditions to men Third- focus on problems of Least Industrialized Nations, values in the workplace

11 Gender Inequality in Education
56% of undergraduates are women Gender tracking- degrees follow gender, reinforces male-female distinctions Graduate school- women less likely to complete doctorate



14 Gender Inequality in Everyday Life
Devaluation of things feminine Higher value placed on things masculine Femininity represents weakness, lack of accomplishment Conversation- women often interrupted, employer- employee relationship in conversation Men use insults that feminize other men

15 Inequality in the Workplace
Gap in pay between men and women Gap in pay exists at all levels of education Nation’s top 500 corporations, only 5 headed by women

16 Gender Inequality in the Workplace
Men enter higher paying fields Women placed in supporting roles at many jobs (human resources, public relations) Child Penalty- women missing out on work experience raising children

17 Gender Inequality in the Workplace
Glass Ceiling- keeps women from advancing to top level positions in upper management If they play by “men’s rules”, they advance quicker Glass Escalator-men working in female occupations (librarian, social worker, elementary school teacher) pushes men into higher levels, more desirable work and pay Mommy Track- emphasizes career and family, encourages women to take lower job, pay Confirms cultural assumption that child rearing is “women’s work Conflict Theory- capitalists exploit gender division

18 Sexual Harassment Unwelcome sexual attention at work or school that affects job performance Not seen as a problem until 1970’s Symbolic Interactionists- term allows us to perceive action in different light

19 Gender and Violence Forms of Violence against Women (usually by males)
Forcible Rape- underreported Date Rape most go unreported Murder Violence in the Home Sociologists agree that solution to problems of violence is to break connection between masculinity and violence

20 Women in the Criminal Justice System
Judges more lenient towards women Recently violence crimes committed by women is rising, demonstrates aggression can be related to social factors

21 Women in Politics Women underrepresented in politics
Law and business not feminine fields, where politicians start Men reluctant to give up power, incorporate women into decision making Some women see politics as incompatible with role expectation of motherhood

22 Future for Equality ? Barriers coming down Stereotypes changing
New consciousness about ability and relationships

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