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Gender Inequality. Median Earnings by Sex (1999) All year-round, full-time workers –Men: $38,000 (40,798 in 2004) –Women: $28,000 (31, 223 in 2004) Physicians.

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Presentation on theme: "Gender Inequality. Median Earnings by Sex (1999) All year-round, full-time workers –Men: $38,000 (40,798 in 2004) –Women: $28,000 (31, 223 in 2004) Physicians."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gender Inequality

2 Median Earnings by Sex (1999) All year-round, full-time workers –Men: $38,000 (40,798 in 2004) –Women: $28,000 (31, 223 in 2004) Physicians & Surgeons –Men: $144,000 –Women: $88,000 Dishwasher –Men: $14,000 –Women: $12,000 Fast Food Worker/Food Preparation –Men: $17,000 –Women: $15,000

3 Gender Inequality Gender inequality: imbalance in access to political, economic, educational, and social arenas based on sex/gender pay gap: disparity between women’s and men’s earnings

4 What Can Explain Gendered Differences of Pay? Human capital theory –Characteristics individuals bring to job –Assumption of fair, competitive economy, labor market –Increase productivity through education, skills, training (the “pay off”) Occupational sex segregation: concentration of women and men in different occupations –Blue collar: manual labor –Pink collar: work primarily done by women –White collar: professionals; office workers

5 Dual Labor Market Difference in women’s & men’s pay due to working in different labor market sectors Primary: high paying jobs; job security; advancement –Higher status tier –Lower status tier Secondary: low paying jobs; little security or possibility for advancement

6 Employer Practices within the Work Organization Overt discrimination Glass ceiling: blocked access to upper-level positions –“Mommy track” Glass escalator: men in “female jobs” pass women

7 Sexism Belief system that one sex is superior to the other sex –Negative attitude toward women –Stereotypes; discrimination –Discrimination Sexual harassment –Quid pro quo: direct sexual threats as condition for employment –Hostile work environment: interferes with work ability

8 Women’s paid work seen as supplementary to men’s work Devaluation of women’s work: question of prestige of women’s work in society

9 Functionalism How is gender inequality, stratification functional for society? Women and men have specific roles to fulfill that are essential to family, societal survival (Parsons, 1955) –Instrumental role: economic support, decision making –Expressive role: emotional support, affection

10 Conflict Perspective Gendered division of labor in the workplace, stems from patriarchy/power, and control of resources Marxist tradition: gender inequality based on ownership of the means of production –Control on property, distribution of goods and services, power over women

11 Symbolic Interactionism “Doing gender”: gender is accomplished through social interaction –ethnomethdological Gender constantly made, reproduced Acting like “a woman” or “a man” confirms gendered social order

12 The F-Word: Feminism Belief that women and men are valued as equal Feminist theory: focuses on the ways in which societal norms & values, roles, institutions limit women’s behavior Understand gender inequality and gender oppression Women’s personal control despite lack of power

13 Feminist Frameworks Liberal feminism: gender equality linked to equal opportunity, lack of civil rights Roots in 19 th century British liberalism Social justice & social change –Individual rights –Equal opportunity –Eliminate structural barriers –Introduce social policy

14 Socialist feminism: women’s oppression based on capitalism –Exploitation of women in the workplace, home –Capitalism and patriarchy –Eliminating capitalism  eliminates gender inequality –Socialist economy where women are paid equal to men

15 Multiracial feminism: focus on the inequality experiences for women of color –Ignored by other feminist frameworks –experience multiple oppressions based on race, class, gender –“multiple jeopardy”

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