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Chapter 8, Gender Inequality

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8, Gender Inequality"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8, Gender Inequality
The Global Context: The Status Of Women And Men Sociological Theories Of Gender Inequality Gender Stratification: Structural Sexism

2 Chapter 8, Gender Inequality
The Social Construction Of Gender Roles: Cultural Sexism Social Problems And Traditional Gender Role Socialization Strategies For Action: Toward Gender Equality

3 Gender Inequality Around the World
500,000 women die each year from complications related to childbirth. 2/3 of women worldwide are illiterate. 1 in 3 women has been abused, beaten, or coerced into sex. Millions of women have undergone female genital mutilation.

4 Gender Inequality in the U.S.
Women in the U.S.: Have lower incomes. Hold fewer prestigious jobs. Earn fewer academic degrees. Are more likely than men to live in poverty.

5 Structural-Functionalist Perspective
Pre-industrial society required a division of labor based on gender. Women nursed and cared for children. Men were responsible for material needs. Industrialization made traditional division of labor less functional, belief system remains.

6 Conflict Perspective Continued domination by males requires a belief system that supports gender inequality. Two beliefs Women are inferior outside the home. Women are more valuable in the home.  

7 Symbolic Interactionist Perspective
Gender and gender roles are learned through socialization process. Women are socialized into expressive roles; men are socialized into instrumental roles.

8 Education and Structural Sexism
Worldwide, women are less likely than men to be literate. In U.S. men are more likely to have doctorate degrees. Women are socialized to choose marriage and motherhood over career preparation.

9 Income and Structural Sexism
Women with same level of education will earn, on average, 60% of what men earn. The higher the percentage of females in an occupation, the lower the pay. Employers channel women and men into different jobs that have different wages.

10 Work and Structural Sexism
Women make up 1/3 of world’s labor force. Women tend to work in jobs with little prestige in roles where they are facilitators for others. Women are more likely to have little or no authority in workplace.

11 Occupational Sex Segregation: Reasons
Through socialization, females and males learn different skills and acquire different aspirations. Women are given fewer opportunities in higher-paying male-dominated jobs. Women have primary responsibility for childcare and choose professions with flexible hours and career paths.

12 Politics and Structural Sexism
U.S. women received right to vote in 1920 with passage of Nineteenth Amendment. In 2001, women comprised only 10% of all governors and held only 13.5% of all U.S. Congressional seats. 80% of U.S. women believe that by 2024, a woman will be in the White House.

13 Focus on Technology: Women, Men, and Computers
Study of top-selling video games found 54% contained female characters; 92% contained male characters. Of female characters displayed, over 1/3 had exposed breasts, thighs, stomachs, midriffs, or bottoms, and 46% had “unusually small” waists. 

14 The School Experience and Cultural Sexism
1990 study of storybooks used in schools: Males were depicted as clever, brave, adventurous, and income-producing. Females were depicted as passive and as victims in need of rescue. Timed, multiple-choice tests favor males.

15 The Feminization of Poverty
Many female households are young women with children and women who have outlived their spouses. “Report card” released by U.S. Women Connect gave U.S. an “F” for efforts to reduce female poverty.

16 International Women’s Bill of Rights
Adopted by united nations in 1979. Establishes rights for women in education, politics, work, law, and family life. Has not been ratified by required 2/3 vote of the U.S. Senate. Every industrialized country except Switzerland and the U.S., has ratified the treaty.

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