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Sex, Gender, and Age Chapter 9.

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Presentation on theme: "Sex, Gender, and Age Chapter 9."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sex, Gender, and Age Chapter 9

2 Inequalities of Gender
Sexual harassment Unwanted sexual attention or pressure from someone of greater power Patriarchy Social arrangement where men dominate women Sexism Ideology maintaining women are inferior to men, justifying discrimination

3 Sex vs. Gender Sex…the biological and anatomical differences between males and females. Primary characteristics…genitalia used in the reproductive process Secondary…the sexual characteristics that develop Facial hair, breasts, voice pitch etc… Gender…the socially and culturally constructed differences between males and females found in the practices associated with femininity and masculinity.

4 Sexual Orientation Sexual orientation refers to someone’s preference for relationships. Heterosexual…opposite sex Homosexual…same sex Bisexual…both sexes Homosexual and bisexuals are much more likely to be labeled negatively and discriminated against. Homophobia…extreme prejudice towards those who are not heterosexual.

5 Gender role Gender role refers to the attitudes, behavior, and activities that are socially defined as appropriate each sex and learned through socialization. How does a male act? How does a female act?

6 Gender Stereotypes Men
strong, rational, dominant, independent, less concerned with appearance Women weak, emotional, nurturing, dependent, anxious about appearance

7 Table 10-1, p. 290

8 In nations around the world, women are often the objects of the male gaze. How might the behavior of others influence our own perceptions of body consciousness? p. 292

9 Sexism Sexism refers the subordination of one sex (usually female) based on the assumed superiority of the other sex. Involves prejudice, stereotyping and discrimination Most commonly occurs in the workplace Men can be victims of sexism as well

10 Single Mothers with Children Under 18
Between 1990 and 2004, the number of U.S. families headed by single mothers increased by about 25%. This marks a change in the roles of many women, and may indicate that “traditional” households are in decline

11 Gender Socialization

12 Agents of Gender Socialization
Living space Designs and artifacts in boys/girls rooms Play Encouraging different roles through toys Dress Clothing styles affect behavior School Reading materials contain gender stereotypes Advertising Biased images exaggerated to sell product

13 Parents, peers, and the larger society all influence our perceptions about gender-appropriate behavior. p. 299

14 Parents and Gender Socialization
Children's clothing and toys reflect their parents' gender expectations. Children are often assigned household tasks according to gender.

15 Are children’s toys a reflection of their own preferences and choices
Are children’s toys a reflection of their own preferences and choices? How do toys reflect gender socialization by parents and other adults? p. 298

16 Are children’s toys a reflection of their own preferences and choices
Are children’s toys a reflection of their own preferences and choices? How do toys reflect gender socialization by parents and other adults? p. 298

17 Peers and Gender Socialization
Peers help children learn gender-appropriate and inappropriate behavior. During adolescence, peers often are more effective at gender socialization than adults. College student peers play an important role in career choices and the establishment of long term, intimate relationships.

18 Schools and Gender Socialization
Teachers provide messages about gender through classroom assignments and informal interactions with students. Teachers may unintentionally show favoritism toward one gender over the other.

19 Teachers often use competition between boys and girls because they hope to make a learning activity more interesting. Here, a middle-school girl leads other girls against boys in a Spanish translation contest. What are the advantages and disadvantages of gender-based competition in classroom settings? p. 300

20 Sports and Gender Socialization
From elementary school through high school: Boys play football. Girls are cheerleaders, members of the drill team, and homecoming queens. For many males, sports is a training ground for masculinity.

21 Mass Media and Gender Socialization
On television: Male characters typically are more aggressive, constructive, and direct. Females are deferential toward others or use manipulation to get their way. Stars are often idolized and may be negative role models as people feel they must live the unrealistic lifestyles portrayed on TV

22 Eating disorders are a concern across lines of race and class
Eating disorders are a concern across lines of race and class. Celebrities such as Mary-Kate Olsen make us more aware of the prevalence of this problem when they announce that they are being treated for anorexia or bulimia. What societal factors may contribute to women and men feeling differently about their bodies? Fig. 10-CO, p. 287

23 In the past, cosmetic surgery was primarily performed on older people and individuals who needed reconstruction as a result of birth defects or accidents. Today, teenagers around the world are having elective surgery to become more “beautiful” or more “perfect.” p. 304

24 Adult Socialization As men and women enter adulthood, they continue to develop gender socialization. Gender roles are carried out in the workplace Women’s work vs. Men’s work Family plans Success relative to age Women are portrayed as more successful when young

25 What stereotypes are associated with men in female-oriented positions
What stereotypes are associated with men in female-oriented positions? With women in male-oriented occupations? Do you think such stereotypes will change in the near future? p. 308

26 According to the human capital model, women may earn less in the labor market because of their child-rearing responsibilities. What other sociological explanations are offered for the lower wages that women receive? p. 309

27 Feminism Feminism…the belief that women and men are equal and should be valued as such.

28 Gender Inequality and Work
Working women Increased participation of women in all aspects of labor force is a recent change Work segregation Certain job categories (clerical and service) still dominated by women Second shift: still strong household obligations Income inequality Women, on average, earn less than men

29 Causes of Gender Inequality in the Workplace
Sexism Women are best suited for certain jobs or should stay at home Lack of qualifications Men have greater experience The Glass Ceiling Difficulties for women to rise to top positions Networking “old boy” network excludes women

30 2010 Earn 81% of what men make (up)
46% labor force participation (down) Slower recovery for women from recession 79% in health, 68% education, 43% professional/technical 24% CEO’s earning 75% of men in those positions 60% of low wage working force

31 The Wage Gap

32 Theoretical Perspectives on Gender
Conflict Theory…it is to men’s advantage to prevent women from reaching their full potential, maintaining the status quo. Symbolic Interactionism…boys and girls learn gender roles through socialization. Functionalist Theory…roles of men and women are divided to benefit, and provide functions to, society.

33 Ageism

34 The Elderly Stereotypes?
What are the roles that they can/do play in society?

35 Defining Ageism Age stratification…the idea that there is unequal distribution of resources based on age (like social class). Ageism…a set of beliefs and attitudes towards the elderly that helps one justify prejudice and discrimination towards the elderly.

36 Elderly and Stereotypes
Senile Unable to learn new skills Immobile Mean

37 Inequality and the Elderly
Poverty for elderly is measured differently than for others. Assumption that they need less Although statistics say poverty among the elderly is decreasing, it is a growing problem Many are “hidden poor”…in institutions etc… Living on fixed incomes

38 Political power of the elderly
Largest turnout of any voter group. Very diverse so often do not agree on many issues. If elderly had a unifying voice, they would have the potential for “gray power.”

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