Presentation on theme: "Dr Riffat Haque 12.09.2011. The word patriarchy literally means the rule of the father or the ‘patriarch’, and originally it was used to describe a specific."— Presentation transcript:
The word patriarchy literally means the rule of the father or the ‘patriarch’, and originally it was used to describe a specific type of ‘male- dominated family’--- the large household of the patriarch which included women, junior men, children, slaves and domestic servants all under the rule of this dominant male. Now it is used more generally to refer to male domination, to the power relationship by which men domination & is characterized as a system whereby women are kept subordinate in a number of ways.
The subordination which is experienced at daily level, regardless of the class, takes various forms: - Discrimination- Disregard- Insult- Control- Exploitation- Oppression- Violence--- within the family, at the place of work etc In South Asia e.g. in Hindi- Pitrasatta, in Urdu- Pidarshahi, in Bangla- Pitratontro.
Male- Gender privilege– Power– Resourcefulness. Systematic structural differences in the cultural, economic & social position of male in relation to women. Central issues in gender inequalities due to ‘gender order’. So patriarchy is a system of structure & practices in which men: Dominate, Oppress, Exploit.
Earlier it was disturbing only the private space i.e. household & family. The result of women’s movement n which women have struggled for vote, education, work, equal pay, property rights etc. The result is women have moved to public life- they face inequalities & discrimination e.g. in paid work, education, jobs…. Now women have moved in the whole society & are exploited. Patriarchal norms anticipate women with feminine characteristics: e.g. sweetness, modesty, submissiveness….
It varies from class to class, race to race, in ethnicity, period of history…. The nature of control can differ. From our grandmothers to our mothers 7 to us. It differ from upper class women, tribal women etc. Hindu, Muslim, European, African etc. Cultural & Social practices vary.
Women’s production or labour power. Women’s reproductive power. Control of women’s sexuality & its exploitation. Control women’s mobility. Control on property & economic recourses.
It permeates in every institution in society which makes it invisible & natural. Family. Social Relations. Religious Beliefs. Laws. Education. Text Books. Media. Employment. Work environment. State. Military & so on.
Different forms of discrimination. Destroys self respect. Subordination. Self-Esteem. Sets limits on aspirations Courageous initiatives/act is condemed (unfeminine). Violation of defined roles & spaces is considered shameless & be-perda.
Women have internalized it. Women are in a vicious circle of discrimination, oppression, suppression, exploitation & domination……due to which it is difficult to come out of it. Women have also shared the class privileges of men e.g. on the basis of nationality, class, ethnicity, religion, in family etc.
Radical feminism: Patriarchy is the primary social division in the society. Institution of family- key through which men dominate women. Biological edge- male control over female bodies. Inequalities between women & men are biological with the difference in reproductive capacities... Violence etc
Marxist Feminism Patriarchy arises from capitalist economic system. Women’s subordination is a by- product of capitalist subordination of labour. Class inequality.
DUAL SYSTEMS THEORY It is a critique on Marxist & Radical perspective. One has over emphasis on class & capitalism. And other has emphasis on Biology. That capitalism & patriarchy are interdependent, mutually accommodating systems of OPRESSION, where by both benefits from women’s SUBORDINATION.
RESIST. ADAPT ACCOMMODATE. CONFLICT. Can u add to this…..