Presentation on theme: "Reserved. Gender Inequality Chapter Outline Gender Stratification Sources of Gender Differences Sociological Perspectives on Gender Stratification."— Presentation transcript:
reserved. Gender Inequality Chapter Outline Gender Stratification Sources of Gender Differences Sociological Perspectives on Gender Stratification
Discussion Why does gender inequality exist? Are some places more prone to these inequalities than others? How can inequalities between males and females cause problems? reserved.
Copy And Complete The Following: CultureWork/ Education Use Of Men/Women DiseasesMEDC’s/LEDC’s reserved. Throughout the presentation, sort your ideas into each of the 5 categories below to show what inequalities exist between each category.
reserved. Sex – whether one is genetically male or female; determines role in reproduction Gender – sociological distinction between males and females Gender identity – one’s self-concept of being male or female Gender roles – sets of cultural expectations about the behavior each sex should exhibit Definition of Terms
reserved. Sexism Individual level – the belief that one sex is superior to the other –Inherent biological differences mean that men and women naturally have different roles –These roles are the primary cause of differential distribution of power, status, and income Institutional level – policies, procedures, and practices that produce unequal outcomes for men and women Gender Stratification
reserved. Are women a minority group? Gender Stratification Five properties of a minority group Experiences discrimination from a dominant group and lacks power to change the situation Distinguishing physical or cultural traits Self-conscious social group; sense of group identity Generally not voluntary Typically endogamous
reserved. Patriarchy A system of social organization in which men have a disproportionate share of power Lorber: early societies were egalitarian Davis-Kimball: archaeological evidence of female military and social power Gender Stratification
reserved. World Gender Inequality U.S. State Department Annual Human Rights Report (2006) – 196 nations Sex trade and forced labor (e.g., Ghana) M. East and N. Africa – honor killings Underage prostitution Sex-selective breeding Female circumcision Literacy and education Gender Stratification
reserved. U.S. Gender Inequality Today, marriage and family have become less of an organizing force in the lives of contemporary women Families today likely to delay childbearing U.S. women’s labor-force participation: 59.2% (2004) More than 60% of women with children under the age of one are employed Gender Stratification
reserved. Gender Stratification Disparities in Earnings Remain Significant Source: U.S. Census Bureau, March Current Population Surveys, available at: http://www.census.gov/hhes/income/histinc/p36ar.html.
reserved. Gender Stratification Disparities in Earnings Remain Significant (continued) Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2005 Annual Social and Economic Supplement, available at: http://pubdb3.census.gov/macro/032005/perinc/new03_000.htm.
reserved. U.S. Gender Inequality The Glass Ceiling –Number of women top executives and board directors increased over the years, but positions at the top still elude women executives Disparities in Pay –Women earn less than men Gender Stratification
reserved. The Second Shift –The burden of housework falls disproportionately on women, working or not Career Patterns: Out of Sync with Family Life –Women who have children encounter substantial career disadvantages –Equal opportunity for women in public sphere remains substantially frustrated by gender-role differentiation within the family Gender Stratification
reserved. Sexual Harassment and Rape –Sexual harassment remains common workplace hazard –Rape is the most violent form of sexual victimization –Culture and gender inequality influence the prevalence of rape and sexual aggression Gender Stratification
reserved. Politics and Government –Number of women in politics in U.S. increased in recent years –Still difficult Low “supply” of candidates Low “demand” for female candidates Ideology affects women’s political representation The Women’s Movement –Substantial impact on way Americans think and act; legal and social equality Gender Stratification
reserved. Persistence and Change –Opportunities for women changed dramatically over the past several decades –Women are still significantly disadvantaged –As more women reach positions of economic, political, and social power, changes may occur at more rapid pace Gender Stratification
reserved. Gender and Biology –Maccoby and Jacklin (1974) Beginning about age 11, girls show greater verbal ability than boys Boys are superior to girls on visual- spatial tasks in adolescence and adulthood At about age 12 to 13, boys move ahead in mathematical ability Males are more aggressive –Hyde (2005) – picture not that simple Sources of Gender Differences
reserved. Gender and Culture –All are born into societies with well- established cultural guidelines for behavior of men and women –Great variation in gender roles from one society to another –Gender roles largely a matter of social definition and socially constructed messages Sources of Gender Differences
reserved. The Functionalist Perspective Gender division of labor retained because it promoted the survival of the species Critics say this view becomes powerful justification for the existence of gender inequality Sociological Perspectives on Gender Stratification
reserved. The Conflict Perspective Gender inequality benefits men, so they attempt to perpetuate it –Exploitation of labor –Availability of sexual gratification –Availability of tools for procreation Acker (1992): production > reproduction Sociological Perspectives on Gender Stratification
reserved. The Interactionist Perspective Gender is socially constructed and internally based Societal behavior follows internal meanings of gender Example: linguistic usages of gender terms such as “men”, “he”, “she”, “boys”, and “girls” Sociological Perspectives on Gender Stratification