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Chapter Seven – immigrants and urbanization

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1 Chapter Seven – immigrants and urbanization
Section 1 – The New Immigrants

2 Through the “Golden Door”
Immigrants come to America with the promise of a better life Sought to escape difficult conditions = famine, land shortages, or religious/political persecution

3 Europeans 1870 – 1920 approximately 20 million Europeans arrived in the United States First wave of immigration (pre-1890) immigrants came from Western Europe Post 1890 = Italy, Austria-Hungary, and Russia Arrived to the East Coast through Ellis Island

4 Europeans Why leave home? To escape religious persecution
To escape rising populations Too few jobs Too little lands for farming From 1800 – 1900 the population of Europe grew from about 200 – 400 million

5 Chinese and Japanese Wave lasted from , entered U.S.A through Angel Island 300,000 Chinese – came seeking fortune, after gold was found in California Chinese helped to build the railroads including the first transcontinental railroad

6 Chinese and Japanese 1920 more than 200,000 Japanese lived on the West Coast Japanese emigration boom came after U.S.A. annexed Hawaii in 1898 Came to U.S.A searching high wages than were being paid in Japan

7 The West Indies and Mexico
1880 – 1920 about 260,000 immigrants arrived in the eastern and southeastern U.S. from the West Indies. West Indies = Jamaica Cuba Puerto Rico Came in search for work in America during its’ “Industrial Boom”

8 The West Indies and Mexico
Mexicans came in search for work too 700,000 Mexicans emigrated to America based on favorable farming opportunities

9 Life in the New Land, a Difficult Journey
By the 1870’s nearly all immigrants traveled by steamship – One week trip from Europe / Three weeks from Asia

10 Ellis Island Read Ellis Island section on pages

11 Angel Island Read Angel Island section on page 257

12 Cooperation for Survival
Many immigrants sought out people who Shared their cultural values Practiced their religion Spoke their native language Once they formed a community they Built churches or synagogues Formed social clubs and aid societies Founded orphanages and old people’s homes Established cemeteries Created newspapers in their home languages

13 The Rise of Nativism Native-born people saw new immigrants as a threat to the American way of life Gave rise to anti-immigrant groups, felt the new immigrants were less desirable than those who had come before (mostly British, German and Scandinavian)

14 Anti-Asian Sentiment Native born workers feared losing jobs to Chinese
1882 Chinese Exclusion Act – put an end to open immigration to all Chinese Allowed to enter Students Teachers Merchants tourists Government officials

15 The Gentlemen’s Agreement
Caused by nativism, and fear of losing jobs 1906 Japanese children were segregated in San Francisco schools – Japan’s gov’t agreed to limit emigration of unskilled workers to the U.S.A in exchange for the repeal of the San Francisco segregation order

16 Chapter Seven – immigrants and urbanization
Section 2 – The Challenges of Urbanization

17 Urban Opportunities Technological boom contributed to urbanization (the growth of cities) Urban centers were located in the Northeast and Midwest

18 Immigrants Settle in Cities
Most Immigrants become city dwellers Cheapest; most convenient places to live Offered unskilled laborers steady jobs

19 Immigrants Settle in Cities
Americanization movement – assimilate wide- ranging cultures into the dominate culture Sponsored by the government and concerned citizens Taught skills needed for citizenship; American history and government

20 Immigrants Settle in Cities
Many immigrants did not wish to abandon their traditions Ethnic communities provided the social support of people from their home country Allowed them to speak their own language Practice their own customs and religions

21 Migration from Country to City
Farming technology reduced the need for laborers on farms Many Southern farmers who lost jobs were African American

22 Migration from Country to City
– 200,000 African Americans moved north and west (Chicago & Detroit) African Americans looked to escape Racial violence Economic hardship Political oppression Segregation and discrimination were the reality in Northern cities too. Job competition created deeper tensions between blacks whites and immigrants

23 Migration from Country to City
Segregation and discrimination were the reality in Northern cities too. Job competition created deeper tensions between blacks white immigrants

24 Urban Problems More people… more problems
How to provide so many residents with essential services and a quality standard of living?

25 Housing As the urban population increased; new types of housing were designed Row houses; single family dwelling w/a shared sidewall Tenements; overcrowded and unsanitary

26 Transportation Mass transit; moved large numbers of people along fixed roads; enabled workers to go to and from work Street cars (San Francisco1873) Electric Subways (Boston 1897) Linked cities and neighborhoods together and to outlying cities

27 Water Providing safe drinking water was a serious issue
1840’s and 1850’s New York and Cleveland built public waterworks Filtration started in the 1870’s, chlorination began in 1908 Early 20th century many residents still had no access to safe water

28 Sanitation By 1900 cities developed sewer lines and created sanitation departments

29 Crime Populations increased crime increases Pickpockets Thieves
Murderers New York City introduces professional police officers

30 Fire Major fires occurred in almost every large American city from ’s Wooden dwellings replaced with brick, stone or concrete structures 1853 Cincinnati – first professional fire department, by 1900 most major cities followed Cincinnati’s lead

31 Reformers Mobilize Social welfare reformers targeted urban poverty as their key issue

32 The Settlement House Movement
Social Gospel Movement – preached salvation through service to the poor Settlement Houses – community centers in slum neighborhoods that provided assistance to people in the area - immigrants

33 The Settlement House Movement
Operated by middle-class college-educated women Settlement houses provided Education (English, health, and painting) Cultural Social services (nurses; support for deserted women Jane Addams page 266

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